In the picture: Prakash Bhattarai, Isak Svensson, and Holly Guthery.
The Department of Peace and Conflict Research has established institutional cooperation with the National Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Otago, New Zealand. As part of this cooperation, the Department is hosting PhD Candidate Holly Guthery and PhD Candidate Prakash Bhattarai as visiting research scholars. Candidate Guthery’s research is on transitional justice, and Candidate Bhattarai’s research focus on third party coordination issues.
On 18–20 April 2013, the Department hosted a memorial conference in honour of the memory of Professor Thomas Ohlson, who passed away on 14 April 2012. Thomas Ohlson was deeply involved in issues of peace, security and development with particular concern for African affairs. His last major research project focused on the conditions for building sustainable peace after the endings of civil wars in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the conference primarily addressed topics of relevance to this theme.
Many excellent researchers working in this field participated in the conference and the organising committee was able to put together a conference programme which dealt with a range of pertinent issues in this field of research, including questions relating to mediation and negotiations, third party involvement in civil war peace processes, electoral violence, military reintegration, political economy after civil war, and communal conflicts and their resolution.
On the evening of Friday 19 April, a dinner was held at Norrlands nation. In addition to the conference participants, many of Thomas’ friends, colleagues and other professional acquaintances from Sweden and abroad participated in the dinner.
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond and the Claude Ake Visiting Chair at Uppsala University sponsored the arrangements.
Thank you all who contributed to this memorable event!
Representatives from the Department of Peace and Conflict Research and the National Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Otago, meet in San Francisco, during the Annual Convention of the International Studies Association. The two departments collaborate within the framework of the inter-university Matariki, and have launched a collaborative internationalization project, supported by the Swedish Institute for the internationalization of higher education (STINT).
February 20 Professor Mary Kaldor (London School of Economis, LSE) visited the UCDP Seminar Series. The topic for the seminar was “New Wars, Old Wars and the Critics” and the audience filled the lecture hall. It started with a presentation by Prof Kaldor, where she also addressed some of the critique she has received on her book (New and old wars: organized violence in a global era which is now in its third edition). Following this PhD candidate Anouk Rigterink (LSE) presented some of her findings on new wars, comparing and using some of the main sources of data on armed conflict, notably COW and UCDP. The third speaker was Associate Professor Magnus Öberg (DPCR), co-author of "The 'New Wars' Debate Revisited: An Empirical Evaluation of the Atrociousness of 'New Wars'" (Uppsala Peace Research Paper No 9) who reiterated some of the points from this report and commented on the two presentation. A lively discussion followed.
Peter Haldén (Phd), researcher at the department, together with Visiting Professor Robert Egnell at Georgetown University, has recently published the book New Agendas in Statebuilding: Hybridity, contingency and history at Routledge.
This volume connects the study of statebuilding to broader aspects of social theory and the historical study of the state, bringing forth new questions and starting-points, both academically and practically, for the field.
Building states has become a highly prioritized issue in international politics. Since the 1990s, mainly Western countries and international institutions have invested large sums of money, vast amounts of manpower, and considerable political capital in ventures of this kind all across the globe. Most of the focus in current literature is on the acute cases, such as Afghanistan and Iraq, but also to states that seem to fit the label ‘failed states’ such as Liberia, Sierra Leone and Somalia.
This book brings together a diverse group of scholars who introduce new theoretical approaches from the broader social sciences. The chapters revisit historical cases of statebuilding, and provide thought-provoking, new strategic perspectives on the field. The result is a volume that broadens and deepens our understanding of statebuilding by highlighting the importance of hybridity, contingency and history in a broad range of case-studies.
This book will be of much interest to students of statebuilding and intervention, peacebuilding, war and conflict studies, security studies and IR in general.
When this year’s Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the European Union (EU), the Swedish national TV channel SVT1 aired a segment on UCDP, and its report on EU performance in international conflicts, including an interview with Professor Peter Wallensteen. It was broadcast in the peak time 19.30 evening news December 10. Apart from the interview, the work of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) was highlighted, including covering a meeting on the annual coding of the battle-related deaths. The interview can be seen here. Only in Swedish.
The UCDP report called A New Start for EU Peacemaking? Past Record and Future Potential concludes that there is a need for a new start for EU as a peacemaker. “In the documentation of EU engagement in international affairs, the report finds the record to be below expectations”. It “also asserts that there is a potential for the EU to take on a more significant international role”. There is also a UCDP-related blog post on this, please visit the UCDP blog.
On September 20, 2012 the Vetenskapsrådet (VR, The Swedish Research Council) had a full day seminar in Stockholm on VR funded research on aspects of war. The seminar started with a presentation of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) by its Director, Professor Peter Wallensteen. He demonstrated UCDP's different resources that can be found on its website (www.ucdp.uu.se) as well as the uses of UCDP in research. The seminar has now been broadcasted on the national Swedish TV channel Kunskapskanalen. The seminar can be seen here. Only in Swedish.
Isak Svensson, associate professor at the department, has recently published the book Ending Holy Wars: Religion and Conflict Resolution in Civil Wars. The book is part of the University of Queensland Press's series "New Approches to Peace and Conflict".
Ending Holy Wars: Religion and Conflict Resolution in Civil Wars is the first book that systematically tries to map out the religious dimensions of internal armed conflicts and explain the conditions under which religious dimensions impede peaceful settlement. It draws upon empirical work on global data, based on the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP), and complements this quantitative data with several smaller case studies (Sri Lanka, Philippines and Indonesia).
In Ending Holy Wars, Dr Svensson addresses a number of timely questions, including:
This important book shows how religious identities and incompatibilities influence the likelihood of agreements and the mechanisms through which parties and third-party mediators have been able to overcome religious obstacles to negotiated settlements.
The findings in Ending Holy Wars pave the way for a discussion on how conflict theory can better incorporate religious dimensions, as well as how policy can be designed to manage religious dimensions in armed conflicts.
How religion matters for contemporary conflicts
At a recent seminar, organized by the Peace Research Institute of Oslo (PRIO), 8 November 2012, Associate Professor Isak Svensson from the Department of Peace and Conflict Research and member of the East Asian Peace program made a presentation on the theme ’How can religious armed conflicts be settled peacefully?’ Isak Svensson presented on the basis of his forthcoming book Ending Holy Wars: Religion and Conflict Resolution and discussed the processes of peacefully resolving armed conflicts with religious dimensions, exemplifying with the recent peace process in the Philippines between the government and the MILF-guerilla. Other presentations were made by Professor Monica Duffy Toft from Oxford University and Ragnhild Nordås from PRIO.
For more information about the event visit PRIO's event webpage.
UCDP was introduced to the international diplomatic corps at a seminar in Europahuset, Stockholm, on October 16th. After a background introduction by Professor Peter Wallensteen Project Leaders Stina Högbladh (left) and Lotta Themnér (right) presented definitions and graphs for different types of conflict. They also demonstrated the free on-line access to the UCDP Conflict Encylopedia. Particular attention was paid to the new geographically coded conflict data. The following Q & A concerned among other things UCDP information on conflict prevention and peace agreements.
The seminar was organized by the Diplomatic Forum under the auspices of Uppsala University.
A seminar on 'Coordinating Actors in Complex Operations' was organised on September 20-21 2012 at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Civilian agencies, conventional armed forces, non-governmental organisations, private military actors, and many other international and local actors increasingly operate in the same space during complex operations. Their practices are intertwined, and some of their tasks overlap. However, their approaches, underlying logics, and patterns of interaction often diverge. Coordination is necessary, but it is extremely difficult to achieve. What explains coordination, and the lack thereof, among these actors? The workshop tried to answer some of these questions. Papers that were presented and discussed included authors such as Christopher Dandeker, Pascal Venneson, Damon Coletta, Linsay Cohn, Robert Egnell, Birthe Anders, Lisa Karlborg, Peter Haldén, Jan Ångström. The main output of the workshop will be a Special Issue in the journal "Small Wars and Insurgencies" edited by Chiara Ruffa. For any further detail or question, contact email@example.com.
Peter Wallensteen, Senior Professor of Peace and Conflict Research at the Department, participated in the meeting on Mediation at the Turkish UN mission in New York, September 27. The meeting took place on the occasion of handing over the manual for mediation that has been developed in the Mediation Support Unit to UN General Assembly. The meeting can be viewed on the UN Web TV.
The panel was chaired by the UN Deputy Secretary General Eliasson (also honorary doctor at Uppsala University and visiting professor of the Department, to the left in the picture); the UN mediator for Syria Lakhdar Brahimi; Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu; Finland's Foreign Minister Erkki Tuomioja; the new President of the UN General Assembly Vuc Jeremic; and Presidential adviser on the Peace Process in the Philippines, Teresita ‘Ging’ Quintos Deles. Peter Wallensteen (the only academic invited to participate) appears at about 55 minutes.
On 18 September the department officially inaugurated the new Rotary Center for International Studies in peace and conflict resolution at Uppsala University. This collaboration between the Rotary foundation and Uppsala University implies that every year 10-12 students will enroll in our two year MA program with prestigious scholarships from the Rotary foundation. Uppsala University was named a Rotary Peace Center in 2011 in stiff competition with 100 universities worldwide. The first class of Rotary Peace Fellows began their MA studies at the department this fall. Speaking at the official inauguration were John Osterlund, General Manager of the Rotary Foundation and Magnus Öberg, Head of Department. Also present at the inauguration were representatives from Rotary in Sweden, university staff, and students and employees from the department.
Ashok Swain, professor at the department, has recently published the book Understanding Emerging Security Challenges: Threats and Opportunities at Routledge.
The book offers an overview of emerging security challenges in the global environment in the post-Cold War era.
After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent shifting of international political environment, a new broader concept of security began to gain acceptance. This concept encompassed socio-economic-environmental challenges, such as resource scarcity and climate change, water-sharing issues, deforestation and forest protection measures, food and health security, and large population migration.
The book examines the causes and consequences of these emerging security threats, and retains a critical focus on evolving approaches to address these issues. The author attempts to develop a framework for sustainable security in a rapidly changing global political landscape, which seeks to bring states and societies together in a way that addresses weaknesses of the evolving international system. Moreover, through a detailed analysis of the emerging security issues and their pathways, the book further argues that the evolving processes not only pose critical challenges but also provide remarkable opportunity for cooperation and collaboration among and within various stakeholders.
This book will be of much interest to students of global security, war and conflict studies, peace studies and IR in general.
How can we understand the causes and consequences of contemporary conflict? What can be done to prevent the outbreak of new conflicts? Krig och fred: En introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier (Studentlitteratur, 2012, in Swedish only) provides a broad introduction to peace and conflict studies. The book brings together some of the most prominent researchers in Sweden to present analytical perspectives on war and conflict, conflict resolution, peace building and development.
Uppsala University has contributed to the book in several ways. Kristine Höglund has, together with Karin Aggestam (Lund University) edited the book and authored two of the introductory chapters. Robert Egnell, Hanne Fjelde, Roland Kostic, Isak Svensson, Anders Themnér, and Jan Ångström have also contributed with chapters on issues such as the causes of war, negotiation and mediation, demobilization and security sector reform, and illustrative cases studies on the war in Afghanistan, and reconciliation in Bosnia-Hercegovina.For more information, see https://www.studentlitteratur.se/#35748-01
Johan Brosché, researcher at the department, together with Professor Daniel Rothbart at George Mason University, has recently published the book Violent Conflict and Peacebuilding: The continuing crisis in Darfur at Routledge.
The book examines the continuing devastation in the Darfur region of Sudan, focusing on its causes and consequences from the perspective of the complementarity of distinct conflicts.
The crisis reached its peak in 2003–2004, when certain Arab militias joined forces with the Sudan armed forces against insurgent resistance movements. Engulfed in the tumult, many Darfurians have experienced systematic slaughter, sexual violence, and internal displacement on a massive scale. Although the violence has waned in recent years, the fighting continues to this day. The authors cast this crisis as a complex web of four distinct, yet interlacing, conflict types:
long-standing disputes between farmers and herders and between different herder communities
political struggles between the local elite leaders of the resistance movements, and those between traditional leaders (elders) and younger aspiring leaders
long-standing grievances of marginalized groups against those at the national centre of power
cross-border conflicts, primarily the proxy war waged between Chad and Sudan
the crisis in South Sudan is also examined through the lens of conflict complementarity.
This book will be of interest to students of African politics, genocide, political violence, ethnic conflict, war and conflict studies, peacebuilding and IR. To order the book click here: http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415689786/
The Swedish National Agency for Higher Education (Högskoleverket) has evaluated the quality of all educations in Peace and Conflict Studies in Sweden. In its final report (see www.hsv.se or www.antagning.se), it concludes that the education in Peace and Conflict Studies at Uppsala University is of high quality. In particular, the education at the Masters level is singled out and receives the highest quality mark available. “We know we have dedicated faculty, talented students and a collegial learning environment, but it is always good to get external validation of your performance. The results for the master’s program are particularly impressive, receiving the highest mark on all of the evaluated criteria,” says Head of Department Magnus Öberg. The student representative Anton Ingstedt comments: “It is always pleasing to have the time and energy spent by fellow students and staff acknowledged by an outside actor. It further reassures you that you are provided with excellent knowledge and the skills needed after graduation.” And director of studies, Jan Ångström, adds: “What is particularly gratifying is that the evaluation was made by fellow scholars at other universities in Sweden and the Nordic countries. That our peers consider our education to be of high or highest quality is very satisfying. It is recognition of all the hard work for many years from staff and students alike and it gives us great encouragement to continue to strive for the dual ambition of academic excellence and professional relevance in our education.”
A major research evaluation undertaken by Uppsala University gives high marks to the research at the Department. The evaluation, known as Quality and Renewal 2011 (KoF11), comprised two different parts. Firstly, a peer-review process, conducted by distinguished scholars of the international research community. Secondly, a bibliometric study of publications in the period 2007–2010.
The peer-review panel rates the Department’s research overall as being of “internationally high standard.” The panel identifies several strong areas, specifically pointing to the Uppsala Conflict Data Program as being of top quality and a University “flagship” noting that “ [t]here is no comparable data set internationally in this area.”
The panel also notes that Department faculty is highly successful in publishing their research:
“A publication list of this magnitude is an achievement for a department that also has teaching responsibilities. The success may be explained by several factors: adequate funding, organizational and intellectual coherence, careful recruiting, an organizational culture of ‘competitive collegiality’… and manageable teaching loads.”
The bibliometric component of the evaluation reinforces this picture. Of all the departments at Uppsala University, Peace and Conflict Research comes out as the best cited department with the highest proportion of highly cited articles. The bibliometric study, which includes publications from 2007-2010, shows that the articles published by the Department’s faculty are 230% more cited than the world average for the field (based on the mean normalized citation score, MNCS).
For the fourth time a celebration was arranged for the students that have successfully graduated from the Master Programme 'Politics and International Studies', with a specialization in peace and conflict studies. It was held on June 4, 2012 in the Main University Building in the presence of friends and families. During the graduation ceremony, Allard Duursma was awarded the Mats Hammarström prize for outstanding essays in Peace and Conflict Studies.
A few days earlier - on June 1 - the graduates from the Masters programme in Politics and International Studies, specialization Eurasia Studies celebrated that they successfully completed their programme. The ceremony was held in the library of the Uppsala Centre for Russian Studies in the presence of friends and families.
Three new Ph.D.s from the Department participated in the Promotion ceremony, in the Uppsala Main University Building, Friday June 1, 2012: Joakim Kreutz, Margareta Sollenberg and Katarina Engberg. The new doctors are here seen together with Peter Wallensteen, Dag Hammarskjöld Professor at the Department who had the role of Promotor for the Social Sciences during the ceremony.
Joakim Kreutz defended his thesis “Dismantling the Conflict Trap: Essays on Civil War Resolution and Relapse” and Margareta Sollenberg defended her thesis "A Scramble for Rents: Foreign Aid and Armed Conflict," both in the spring of 2012. Katarina Engberg defended her thesis “The EU´s Collective Use of Force: Exploring the Factors behind its First Military Operations” in the spring of 2011.
As Professor of Ethnic Studies with a special concern for Northern Ireland, John Darby played a significant role in developing the comparative study of peace processes. A result in the early 1990s was the creation of INCORE – Initiative on Conflict Resolution and Ethnicity – a unique cooperation between the UN University and the University of Ulster. It remains a vibrant center for teaching and research in peace and conflict studies. In 1999, John Darby took up the position as Professor of Comparative Ethnic Studies at the Kroc Institute, University of Notre Dame. The following years saw a number of books, articles and projects relating to ethnic conflicts as well as peace accords. During this time a closer collaboration was developed with the Department of Peace and Conflict Research at Uppsala University. The cooperation centered on the Peace Accords Matrix (PAM), initiated by John Darby, and now a functioning resource for research and policy. In the middle of this work John Darby acquired the illness to which he succumbed, on June 2, 2012.
Professor Peter Wallensteen: My first encounter with John Darby was in the middle of the 1980s as I took a group of concerned citizens to Northern Ireland to learn about the conflict. John’s insightful and nuanced comments made a lasting impression. It led me to invite him to participate as a teacher in an international training programme, which included a visit to the Åland Islands. The contacts have continued throughout the years. During the fall semesters we both spent at the Kroc Institute, our relationship as teachers and research collaborators deepened. His involvement as a third party in a number of conflicts provided added value. John’s pointed and well-formulated remarks could turn any meeting into a truly satisfying experience.
Kristine Höglund, Associate Professor: John Darby was one of the first professors I met when as a student I set out to do field work in Northern Ireland in the late 1990s. In spite of a busy schedule he took time to meet me at a train station to explain the intricacies of the peace process. This was the first of many encounters over the years. John’s research on the role of violence in peace processes was pioneering, and was a key source of inspiration for my PhD dissertation. As a young scholar I had the opportunity to be part of one of John’s book projects, and to benefit from his feedback, always delivered with a smile and with great theoretical and empirical insights. His generosity, support, and knowledge on peace processes will be deeply missed.
Security in Africa (PASA) for programme year 2012–2013 has just been completed. PASA is carried out by the Department of Peace and Conflict Research in cooperation with the African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD) and the Swedish consultancy firm Indevelop, and is financially supported by the Swedish Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). This is the second year the programme is given and it has brought a qualified group of participants from a range of inter-governmental and non-governmental regional organisations working in the field of peace and security on the African continent, such as the AU, the East African Community, IGAD, the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, and WANEP, to Uppsala during the month of May. Topics such as conflict resolution, mediation, DDR processes, the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA), and state building have been discussed. The group will meet again, to follow up and continue the discussions in South Africa in October 2012.
Left escalator (from the top, left): Peter Wallensteen, Erik Melander, Will Moore, Julian Wucherpfennig, Paul Huth, Allard Duursma, Ragnhild Nordås, Jeroen Smits, Tanja Ellingsen, Sabine Otto, Manuel Vogt, Lisa Hultman, Agatha Hultquist, Laura Grant, Michael Hechter, Right escalator (from the top, left): Erika Forsberg, John McCauley, Hanne Fjelde, Magnus Öberg, Kathleen Cunningham, Nils Weidmann, Andreas Wimmer, Luke Condra, Alma Gottlieb-McHale, David Cunningham, Karin Dyrstad, Joakim Kreutz, Christian Davenport, Johanna Birnir, Monica Toft, Erin Jenne
On 26-28 April, about thirty world leading scholars on ethnicity and conflict attended a workshop hosted by the Department of Peace and Conflict Research. The overall aim of the workshop was to discuss various issues in the collection and analysis of data relating to ethnicity and conflict. During the workshop, some of the major data collection projects in the field presented their projects and most recent extensions, including the Minorities at Risk project, the Zürich-based GROWup project, and the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP). Two expert panels provided insights on what we know about ethnicity and conflict and prospects for future developments. In presentations of individual research papers, a whole range of themes were covered, such as theoretical questions relating to e.g. the role of the state and religion’s relationship with ethnicity, and methodological issues, such as disaggregation of data and compatibility across datasets. A summary report will be posted on this website. Meanwhile, additional information about the workshop, including a complete list of participants and the program can be found here.
Address questions to the workshop organizer Erika Forsberg.
Harvard Professor Steven Pinker gave a lecture in the Aula Magna of Uppsala University's Main Building on Thursday March 15. The topic built on his new book, The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined, and documented the decline in violence, in terms of wars, deaths in war and other types of violence, such as torture and lynchings. Part of his presentation built on information from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program.
Dr. Pinker is a Professor of Psychology and his explanations for the decline did not only include the importance of a responsive state but also normative changes in society. Two researchers, Peace Research Dr. Peter Haldén and History Dr. Karin Hassan Jansson commented on his ideas. The event was moderated by Professor Peter Wallensteen, and it was opened by Vice Rector Ulf Danielsson of Uppsala University and Carl Hvenmark Nilsson from the Uppsala Association of International Affairs.
For the presentation and the panel debate, see http://media.medfarm.uu.se/play/kanal/1/
Visiting Professor and Honorary Doctor Jan Eliasson has been appointed by the UN Secretary General as his Deputy, Mr. Ban Ki-Moon announced on March 2. Eliasson will deal with matters on mediation, conflict resolution as well as development issues. He takes up his new duties on July 1 and will be based in New York.
Eliasson has a long-standing relation to the Department. He has repeatedly been a Visiting Professor in the Department. His first lecture was in 1988, most recently he talked to the Master program Tuesday, February 28 on mediation, the very topic that now will be part of his UN duties.
- Jan Eliasson will be the highest official from Sweden in the UN system since Dag Hammarskjöld, says Professor Peter Wallensteen, adding that: "Eliasson is very positive to academic analysis and sees the value of research in furthering peace, development and human rights. His remarkable teaching skills will come in handy in his new job, where the ability to convince is an important asset. We look forward to learning more from him in the future on the UN and its operations."
The third edition of Peter Wallensteen’s globally used Understanding Conflict Resolution is just out. It presents the issues building on scholarship, not the least from the Uppsala Department. This edition updates the previous ones. It includes events until the killing of Osama bin Laden in May 2011, recent UCDP data and newest research findings. It also has suggested readings.
Having used the previous edition Professor Patrick M. Regan at University of Binghamton says that “The newest edition expands coverage to conflict that are most salient to today’s students and builds on new scholarship about the role of peace agreements in securing long term peace”. Thus it “makes teaching these core ideas rather easy”.
Wallensteen says this volume uses the same structure as previous editions with a theoretical part, an analysis of three types of conflict, and sections on regional and international dimensions, where matters of mediation, sanctions and enforcement are presented.
The book is particularly useful on Master and PhD levels, but also works as encyclopedia on conflict resolution, for instance through an elaborate index.
For a recent review see Times Higher Education (THE)
While all other East Asian countries have seen a decline in the number and intensity of armed conflict, Thailand has since 2001 had an opposite trend with several thousand people being killed in the country’s “deep south,” where Malay Muslim rebels are engaged in a conflict over territory. Thailand has also engaged in a violent international border dispute with Cambodia over the temple Preah Vihear, and more than 90 people were killed in the streets of Bangkok in a conflict over government with the Red Shirt movement in April-May 2010.
The possible reasons for the Thai exception were discussed at a workshop organized by the East Asian Peace program in Bangkok 9 – 11 March, after which two of the participants, Anders Engvall and Isak Svensson, travelled on a fact finding mission to Pattani in the “Deep South.”
Several draft papers and articles were discussed at the workshop, which also listened to a presentation by Professor Duncan McCargo, a leading expert on the conflict in south Thailand, entitled “Further reflections on the Southern Thailand conflict”.
The workshop was attended by the program’s core group consisting of program leader Stein Tönnesson, Erik Melander, Elin Bjarnegård, Isak Svensson and Timo Kivimäki as well as research associate Anders Engvall (an economist who has specialised on Thailand and is a fluent Thai speaker), research assistant Susanne Schaftenaar, and Chair of the East Asian Peace program’s Advisory Board Peter Wallensteen.
The participants additionally partook in a conference organized on 9 March at Chulalongkorn University on “Democracy and Crisis in Thailand,” with intense discussions about the role of the monarchy in Thailand. This conference was organised by Erik Kuhonta of McGill University (Montreal) together with several Thai partners.
Please see Elin Bjarnegård’s blog post about this conference on the EAP program website’s blog page.
When Thomas Ohlson joined the Department’s Ph.D. program in 1991 he brought with him an unusual background and special skills. He had just returned from Mozambique where he and his wife Margareta (deceased in 2000) had been heavily engaged in development work. Thomas was the head of the Department for Strategic Studies within the Centro de Estudos Africanos, Eduardo Mondlane University, in Maputo for three years. Before this he had been the project leader at SIPRI, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, for the arms trade and arms production research teams, in all spending seven years at the institute. His academic training was as an economist.
With his signum energy he not only produced a dissertation that opened up new methodological paths in the Department, Power Politics and Peace Policies. Intra-State Conflict Resolution in Southern Africa (1998) with Professor I. William Zartman as the opponent (external examiner). At the same time he was directing the Advanced Program on Conflict Resolution (financed by Sida, called PACS) and produced a book with Professor Stephen J Stedman, The New Is Not Yet Born. Conflict Resolution in Southern Africa (in 1994), a work that has become widely read. Together with his work in Mozambique and at SIPRI this made him a Docent (2000) and Professor (2005) in record time. His work since then has spanned many of the Department’s activities: Teaching in the Masters program, being an engaged Ph.D. supervisor; taking charge of Ph.D. admissions process; leading the Claude Ake Visiting Chair Program (with the Nordic Africa Institute); developing the partnership with Accord in South Africa; as well as directing the sequel to PACS called TOPS and involved in the setting up of its present version, PASA.
His major scholarly work was outlined in the seminal article ‟Understanding Causes of War and Peace‟, European Journal of International Relations, (2008) which also was used to organize the manuscript for the book From Intra-State War to Durable Peace. Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Africa After the Cold War (Dordrecht: Republic of Letters Publishers), which has been completed and is soon to come from the printers. Unfortunately too late for him to see.
An exceptional teacher, an engaged researcher, a considerate colleague, a great human being, the loving husband of Liana Lopes and the dedicated father of Joel and Joakim has left us on April 14, 2012 at the age of 58. His memory will long be cherished.
Peter Wallensteen and Magnus Öberg
Prorector Anders Malmberg presents the official statement for awarding the Rudbeck medal, while Rector Eva Åkesson and laureate Professor Peter Wallensteen listen, at the Uppsala University Conferment Ceremony (Promotionen in Swedish), January 27, 2012.
Peter Wallensteen, holder of the Dag Hammarskjöld Chair at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research and Richard. G Starmann, Sr., Research Professor of Peace Studies at University of Notre Dame, USA, has been awarded the Rudbeck medal of 2011. It was given out at the Doctoral Conferment Ceremony, January 27, 2012. This medal was established by Uppsala University in 2002 in memory of Professor Olof Rudbeck Sr. 300 years after his passing, in order to award outstanding research achievements attained at Uppsala University.
The official statement reads: 'His internationally acknowledged research has among other topics focused on peaceful conflict resolution through mediation. During several decades he has been at the forefront in developing the Department of Peace and Conflict Research at Uppsala University to a leading international research milieu and he is also the founder of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP), which maps armed conflicts and peace agreements on a global scale.
Participants of the EAP First Annual Conference:
From front to left: Miriam Coronel-Ferrer, Wang Dong, Hoang Anh Tuan, Wang Yizhou, Zou Keyuan, Peter Wallensteen (behind), Isak Svensson, Moon Chung-in, Susanne Schaftenaar, Thommy Svensson, Stein Tønnesson, Erik Melander. Standing from left: Mei Shanshan, Jong Kun Choi, Tang Chih-Mao, Ryu Yongwook, Anders Engvall, Bates Gill, Thomas Nielsen, Robert S. Ross, Mikael Weissmann, Elin Bjarnegård, Timo Kivimäki, Börje Ljunggren.
The East Asian Peace (EAP) program has passed its first year. Among our several publications, the 2011 highlight is Isak Svensson and Mathilda Lindgren’s article ‘From Bombs to Banners,’ which appeared in Security Dialogue. This article adds a plausible explanatory factor that we did not consider when we submitted our program proposal to Riksbankens Jubileumsfond in 2010. We thought only about state behaviour. However, we did not restrict our research proposal to international peace, but also included internal or ‘civil peace’ in what we set out to explain. Civil peace does not only depend on governments, but also on rebel behaviour. What Svensson and Lindgren suggest is that there has been a change over time in rebel behaviour from rural guerrilla struggles to city-based un-armed revolts: from ‘bombs to banners’ or from ‘People’s War to People Power.’ This has now become an essential part of the EAP research agenda. Another strength in Svensson and Lindgren’s article is its comparative framework. It speaks not just of East Asia, but asks if there is a global trend away from armed violence in rebel behaviour. Just as the article went to press, events in the Arab world put the thesis to a test. Tunisia confirmed the trend. Egypt too, at first. Libya and Syria did not. Svensson and Tönnesson will follow up with a paper for the International Studies Association convention in San Diego in April 2012, comparing rebellions in East Asia and the Middle East.
Other EAP achievements in 2011 were to organize the first Annual Conference in September, establish Susanne Schaftenaar’s program office at Uppsala University, enter into contractual relations with all of the program’s 22 researchers and research associates as well as the eight members of the Advisory Board, and engage in heated scholarly discussions over hypotheses that shall prove their value in the coming years. We also organized two panels on the ‘capitalist peace’ at the AAS-ICAS convention in Honolulu in May, where program leader Stein Tönnesson proudly received the 2011 ICAS book prize in the Humanities for his Vietnam 1946: How the War Began.
The move of the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) across Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic and Sudan between 1995 and 2010. White dots represent the oldest activity, followed in order by blue, green, yellow and red dots. Larger and darker dots represent higher fatality estimates.
Today, 8 December, the Uppsala Conflict Data Program released its latest dataset; the UCDP GED version 1.0-2011. The UCDP GED is an event-based and georeferenced dataset on organized violence, detailing all of the UCDP’s categories of violence (state-based conflict, non-state conflict and one-sided violence) in Africa between 1989 and 2010 at the level of the individual event of violence.
In contrast to the UCDP’s country-year datasets, that are separated between different datasets depending on the type of violence they track, the UCDP GED contains data on all types of organized violence, disaggregated spatially and temporally down to the level of the individual incidents of fatal violence. Each event comes complete with date of the event, place of the event (with coordinates), actors participating in the event, estimates of fatalities, as well as variables that denote the certainty with which these data are known.
This version of the dataset comes in a point format, georeferenced using the WGS84 datum and is compatible with most GIS software. Further updates during December 2011 and January 2012 will contain polygons of conflict zones, as well as onset data in point and polygon formats (shapefile format for use in ArcGIS). This first release of data contains all of those events that appear in years when a dyad or actor crosses the 25 fatalities threshold; future updates will contain events beyond these so-called ‘active years’, as well as data on actors and dyads that have never crossed this threshold. This version of the dataset contains approximately 24 000 individual events of violence.
This new dataset allows for the analysis of the causes, dynamics and resolution of organized violence at a level of analysis below the state system. The data can be conjoined with other sub-state data, such as disaggregated information on population, economy and the environment to allow for types of analyses and answer questions that country-level cannot address.
The UCDP has been working on coding and organizing these data for approximately 2,5 years, with a research group of approximately 15 project managers and research assistants. The data have been thoroughly checked and double-checked, both manually and through automated scripts, so as to ensure the integrity and usability of the product. We hope you like it.
Questions, comments and any errors should be directed to the project manager, Ralph Sundberg (firstname.lastname@example.org).
For detailed and interactive maps please see the UCDP GED project page at http://ucdp.uu.se/ged/
A comparison of coverage and quality of UCDP GED to ACLED can be found in the following article: Eck, Kristine (2012) "In Data We Trust? A Comparison of UCDP GED and ACLED Conflict Events Datasets,"Cooperation and Conflict 47(1): forthcoming.
For the press release, please click here (in Swedish)
2011 Peace Prize winners, Leymah Gbowee, Liberia, and Tawakkul Karman, Yemen, visited Uppsala University on December 13, 2011 and responded to questions from a panel of young researchers and students. Peace researchers were heavily represented. The questions dealt with issues of non-violence, peacebuilding as well as sources of inspiration and nominations for the next Peace Prize. The two laureates were warmly received by the Uppsala audience filling the main auditorium of the university.
From left: Dr. Anders Themnér and Ph.D. candidate Mathilda Lindgren, both at the Department, then Mrs Leymah Gbowee, and Professor Peter Wallensteen, chairing the session, Mrs Tawakkul Karman with her interpreter, followed by Ms. Lena Ag, Secretary-General of the women’s organization Kvinna-till-kvinna and two students from UF (The Uppsala Association of International Affairs/Utrikespolitiska föreningen) Malin Bergwik and Carl Hvenmark Nilsson, both program secretaries of the association. The laureates were greeted by outgoing Deputy Rector (prorektor), Professor Kerstin Sahlin (not in the picture).
On 15-16 December, the Department hosted the biannual National Conference on Peace and Conflict Research for PhD candidates, sponsored by Folke Bernadotte Academy. The conference saw broad participation of PhD students active in research environments throughout Sweden, who presented and discussed their ongoing work in workshop sessions during the two days. The conference was opened by Peter Wallensteen, Professor at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research (DPCR), followed by a keynote speech on the theme “New Directions in Peace and Conflict Research”, delivered by Séverine Autesserre, Assistant Professor at Barnard College, Columbia University. In her speech, Professor Autesserre addressed the growing interest in micro-level processes in peace and conflict research, making reference to how this focus united many of the PhD projects represented at the conference.
Day two of the conference began with a roundtable discussion on publishing and how PhD students should approach this issue, chaired by Mats Hammarström, Associate Professor, DPRC, and featuring Professor Nils Petter Gleditsch from PRIO, Oslo, Associate Professor Kristine Höglund, DPCR, Associate Professor Jan Ångström, DPCR, and Visiting Scholar Allan Dafoe, DPCR. The conference concluded in the afternoon of Friday 16 December on a very positive note and with hopes of continued contacts and exchanges until the next conference, to be arranged by one of the other participating universities.
Photo: Tommy Westberg
PASA 2011-2012 is on its third and final week here in Uppsala (October 2011). PASA is an International Training Programme organised and carried out by the Department of Peace and Conflict Research in cooperation with the African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD) and the Swedish consultancy firm Indevelop, and financially supported by the Swedish Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). This is the first year the programme is given and it has brought a qualified group of participants from the AU, Africa Peace Forum, East African Community, ECOWAS, Goree Institute, IGAD-CEWARN, International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, MARWOPNET, WANEP and the Swedish Embassy in Nairobi to Uppsala in the middle of the dark October month. Topics such as mediation and dialogue, DDR processes, the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA), conflict prevention and early warning, and the management of election-related violence have been vividly discussed. The group will meet again, to follow up and continue the discussions in Durban, South Africa in March 2012.
Application for PASA 2012-2013 has opened and application material can be found here.
Her Royal Highness Crown Princess Victoria and Prince Daniel participated in a special seminar in the Department on October 14, 2011 as part of an informal visit to Uppsala University. Crown Princess Victoria is an alumn of the Department and this was an opportunity to inform her as well as Prince Daniel on recent activities at the Department. Deputy Head of Department Magnus Öberg gave an overview of educational and scientific achievements. Dr. Kristine Höglund informed the Royal couple on the program on Governance, Conflicts and Peacebuilding, in particular she elaborated on the study of electoral violence. Ms Lotta Themnér and Therese Pettersson demonstrated the latest data from UCDP, Uppsala Conflict Data Program, including geo-referenced data on particular conflicts. Dr. Erik Melander presented the recently initiated East Asian Peace program. The seminar was chaired by Professor Peter Wallensteen and the discussions were lively in a friendly atmosphere.
Picture: At the table from left: Crown Princess Victoria, Prince Daniel and Louise Dinkelspiel, Peter Wallensteen, Lotta Themnér and Therese Pettersson. In the back Per Ström, Uppsala University.
Also present but not in the picture were Magnus Öberg, Erik Melander and Kristine Höglund.
Comment, by Professor Peter Wallensteen,
This year's Nobel Peace Prize is most welcome. It highlights one of the most well known resolutions by the UN Security Council, Resolution 1325 from year 2000. It emphasized the role of women in peace processes. The three women that now share the prize meet the criteria very well. All three have demonstrated great courage in standing up to warlords and dictators with the use of non-violent methods.Their work has aimed at achieving lasting peace and democracy.
Leymah Gbowee (Liberia) och Tawakkul Karman (Yemen) have created popular movements that have contributed to real change, notably ending 14 years of war in Liberia and opening the chances for a democratic transition in Yemen.
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (Liberia) is Africa's first democratically elected female president. She has led the efforts of reconstructing Liberia, after the wars, an example of peacebuilding in very difficult conditions. Together the three women demonstrate that the quest for democracy is a shared value transcending different religious traditions.
The Department was happy to have Ms. Johnson Sirleaf as a participant in a conference on conflict prevention ten years ago. The Department was also involved in the work that eventually led to the historical resolution 1325.
Ambassador and former Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs, Jan Eliasson, honorary doctor, a frequent teacher and Visiting Professor with the Department, presented the annual Dag Hammarskjöld lecture in the grand auditorium in the University Main Building, September 18, 2011. This was almost to the hour 50 years after the news broke that the UN Secretary General had died in a plane clash in Ndola, in today’s Zambia.
Eliasson stressed the “indispensable” connections between peace, development and human rights. He illustrated this with an observation in the 2011 World Bank report saying that “The report highlights the recurrent cycles of weak governance, poverty and violence. Not one low-income country coping with these problems has yet achieved a single Millennium Development Goal!“ Dr. Eliasson was introduced by Professor Peter Wallensteen, holder of the Dag Hammarskjöld chair in Peace and Conflict Research, who also moderated the discussion that followed.
Peace Research: Theory and Practice – a new textbook by Peter Wallensteen – is now available from Routledge. The 278-pages book comprises a series of articles presenting an overview of the thematic development peace research. Drawing on years of research and experience Professor Wallensteen has collected thirteen key articles and added five new essays into one book. It is organized around the theme of making peace researchable and offers insights on the origins and works of the Uppsala Department as well as ethical issues, causes of war studies, the emergence of the conflict data program, uses of sanctions and third party activity by academics (‘academic diplomacy’).
Professor Bruce Russett at Yale University says in his review that the book ‘spans a distinguished career of theory, empirical research, and also practice, thus showing how social scientists can inform policy, and inspire all those who hope to reduce violence in this world.'
The department wishes to welcome all new and old students to a new academic year with new exciting challenges and opportunities. In the media we are constantly reminded of the importance of questions about peaceful conflict resolutions and sustainable development. Increasing violence against civilians in Syria, continued violence in Libya and Afghanistan at the same time as a severe drought has deepened the already ongoing humanitarian crisis on the Horn of Africa.
These are questions that, among others, the students of the new bachelor program in peace and conflict studies will be focusing on during the coming three years. From a total of 1152 applicants 40 have now been admitted and begun their studies at the department. The large number of applications placed the program among the top five most popular programs at Uppsala University.
The fall semester also marked the beginning for a new group of master students in politics and international studies. The department offers two tracks in the master program: Peace and Conflict studies and Eurasian studies. About 30 students (of a total of 445 applicants) were admitted to the Peace and Conflict track and about 20 students (of a total of 158 applicants) were admitted to the Eurasian track.
In addition to the programs, the department also gives the A- and C-course in peace and conflict studies as well as web-based courses during the fall semester.
The UCDP article “Armed Conflicts, 1946-2010” by Lotta Themnér (formerly Harbom) and Peter Wallensteen was published in the July issue of Journal of Peace Research (JPR). Last year’s article, “Armed Conflicts, 1946-2009”, was the most downloaded article in the Journal of Peace Research (JPR) in 2010 (of all articles published in 2009 and 2010).
This year’s article, “Armed Conflicts, 1946-2010”, presents the latest developments on armed conflicts during 2010 by drawing on data from the most recent version of the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Dataset (v.4-2011) as well as from the Uppsala Conflict Database. In 2010, UCDP recorded 30 active armed conflicts, which is a substantial reduction from the 36 active conflicts recorded in 2009 and the lowest number of active conflicts since 2003. It is also noted in the article that the number of wars (1,000 or more battle-related deaths) declined from six in 2009 to four in 2010. However, only two peace agreements were concluded during the year, which is decidedly below the annual average for the post-Cold War period.
UCDP data on armed conflicts have been published yearly in the Journal of Peace Research since 1993. A free version of the last year’s article “Armed Conflicts, 1946-2009” can be accessed by clicking on the link below.
Sign up for the UCDP Update Alert for the latest news on data releases, publications and updates from the UCDP.
The funeral ceremony for Professor Ulf Himmelstrand, Professor of Sociology at Uppsala University 1969-1989, was held in Uppsala on July 12, 2011.
At Uppsala University Ulf Himmelstrand was involved in the promotion of peace research. In his view, issues of peace and war were central to Sociology and, thus, there was also a peace studies course as part of the Sociology curricula in the 1970s.
His commitment no doubt stemmed from his broad international experience. Noteworthy is his work for establishing Sociology as an academic discipline in Nigeria in the 1960s. He was also openly critical to Swedish nuclear weapons when the issue was debated in the late 1950s. Building on such experiences he became a gratefully remembered and most active member of the externally composed board of the new Department of Peace and Conflict Research at Uppsala University until the early 1980s.
The Department has successfully graduated three Ph.D.s during the past year, two of whom participated in the Promotion ceremony, in the Uppsala Main University Building, Friday May 29, 2011: Roxanna Sjöstedt and Kristine Eck. The new doctors are here seen together with Erik Noreen, Head of Department (on the left) and Peter Wallensteen, Dag Hammarskjöld Professor at the Department (in the gown from University of Notre Dame).
Kristine Eck defended her thesis "Raising Rebels: Participation and Recruitment in Civil War" in the spring of 2010 and Roxanna Sjöstedt defended her thesis “Talking Threats - The Social Construction of National Security in Russia and the United States" in the fall of 2010.
The picture shows Jacob Bercovitch (r) in his office involved in a deep conversation with Professor Karl deRouen on a joint research project, March 23, 2010.
Professor Jacob Bercovitch, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, passed away in his home, early June 2011. This is a great loss to the international social science community. He was a good friend of the Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.
Jacob was a pioneer in the quantitative study of mediation, by building a ‘Correlates of Mediation’ program (inspired by J. David Singer's seminal work on war) and he created an original database on third party efforts in inter-state conflicts. Recently, he was also involved in a new dataset on civil war mediation.
Jacob published a series of influential journal articles in Journal of Peace Research, Journal of Conflict Resolution and International Interactions. His activities included co-authored articles and co-editing the central Sage Handbook on Conflict Resolution in 2009. He promoted the study of mediation by involving a network of colleagues in ambitious projects, of which one is continuing – financed by the Marsden Fund of New Zealand.
All this meant that he placed his university as well as New Zealand scholarship firmly on the map of international relations and peace studies.
In Uppsala we were pleased to welcome Jacob at a major conference on conflict prevention in 1997. This resulted in closer relations, including an invitation for me to Christchurch as a Canterbury fellow in 2001.
Jacob Bercovitch was appointed a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand in 2005.
For the second time a celebration was arranged for the students that have successfully graduated from the Master Programme 'Politics and International Studies', with a specialization in peace and conflict studies. It was held on June 1, 2010 in the Main University Building.
In keen international competition keen international competition, Uppsala University has been named one of Rotary International’s seven international Peace Centers. This means that students from all over the world will be able to receive Rotary scholarships to pursue a master program in peace and conflict studies at Uppsala.
- Rotary’s decision is a source of tremendous pride for us. The field of peace, security, and democracy is one of our University’s truly robust areas in research and education, and it means a great deal to us to have been selected among more than 100 universities in the world, says Anders Hallberg, Vice Chancellor of Uppsala University.
Rotary Peace Fellowships from the Rotary Foundation enable students to win scholarships in tough competition to study peace and conflict studies for two years at an internationally leading university.
- It is, of course, a great honor to be recognized as offering world-class education, says Peter Wallensteen, holder of the Dag Hammarskjöld Professorship in Peace and Conflict Research at the University. This is an effect of our long-term quality work in education and research. It has resulted in bright international students already finding their way here.
- We have had strong support from Swedish Rotary in this process, and we look forward to continued collaboration both nationally and internationally.
Read more on Rotary website.
The Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) is the winner of the Lijphart/Przeworski/Verba Data Set Award for 2011. It is the Comparative Politics Section of the American Political Science Association (APSA) which rewards a publicly available data set that has made an important contribution to the field of comparative politics.
– UCDP was an “enthusiastic and unanimous choice of the Committee” says its chairperson Mark Tessler, University of Michigan, when conveying the news to Professor Peter Wallensteen, Director of the UCDP.
The award is named after the three path-breaking scholars in comparative studies of democracy: Arend Lijphart, now at University of San Diego, Adam Przeworski at New York University and Sidney Verba at Harvard University.
– These gentlemen are true giants in the systematic study of democracy. Their contributions are highly relevant for peace research, which makes this reward particularly encouraging, says Professor Wallensteen and adds that “we have learnt how democracy can solve conflicts, and made the observation that democracies do not fight wars with one another thanks to access of systematic data. The Uppsala Conflict Data Program provides a basis for this type of studies as well as other kinds of research concerning peace and war. The fact that UCDP information is available free of charge makes it useful in practice not only for the research community.”
APSA is the leading political science association. The award ceremony will take place at its annual meeting in Seattle, USA, in September 2011.
Understanding Peace Research: Methods and Challenges - a new textbook edited by Kristine Höglund and Magnus Öberg - is now available from Routledge. The book contains contributions from several researchers at the department and provides a comprehensive overview of different methods and sources of information-gathering, as well as the challenges presented by such work. Aimed at peace researchers and advanced students it offers:
Reviews ‘At last we have a book that addresses the varied research needs of peacemakers. This book draws on the Uppsala Conflict Data Program’s experience in systematic data collection but is careful to include field work in conflict settings, and to acknowledge their complementarity. A timely publication.’
Prof. John Darby, Kroc Institute, Notre Dame University
‘The editors and authors of this volume have produced a comprehensive overview of peace research methods, ranging from historical source criticism and fieldwork in war-torn societies to the setting up of databases for the statistical study of conflict. The result is a book that should prove extremely valuable in teaching as well as in research on conflict and peace, while also being accessible to a wider public.’
Nils Petter Gleditsch, Research Professor, Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO)
‘It is a rare moment when a book arrives that fills so great a need and then also does so with such care and quality. Understanding Peace Research walks researchers through the difficulties of researching violent conflict, provides superb instruction on a wide range of techniques and sources of information in such conditions, and answers the impassioned plea from those doing field research for guidance on its ethical challenges as well.’
Professor Susan L. Woodward, The Graduate Center, CUNY
Former Foreign Minister and Visiting Professor Jan Eliasson discussed mediation with graduate students of the Master Program of the Department on March 14, 2011. The point of the departure was the book The Go-Between by Isak Svensson and Peter Wallensteen, dealing with six of Eliasson's mediation experiences.
In the last three decades Jan Eliasson worked as a mediator for the UN and OSCE in multiple missions. At the side of Olof Palme Eliasson worked in the Iran-Iraq negotiations between 1980 and 1986, where he mediated again in 1988-91. In addition he was assigned to mediate conflicts and humanitarian crisis in Burma-Bangladesh (1992), Sudan (1992), Azerbaijan (Nagorno-Karabakh) (1994), and in Darfur, Sudan (2007-2008).
Jan Eliasson has been Sweden’s Minister for Foreign Affairs (2006) and was President of the sixtieth session of the United Nations General Assembly (2005-06). He was Sweden’s Ambassador to the United States (2000-05), and State Secretary for Foreign Affairs 1994-2000. He was appointed Honorary Doctor of Philosophy at Uppsala University in January 2006. During the first half of 2007 and 2008 he served as Visiting Professor at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University. He has written on conflict prevention issues
Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping (r) joined by President Jimmy Carter (l) and Richard Nixon (m) during his visit to Washington, D.C., January 1979. Shortly after this visit China began its invasion of northern Vietnam in retaliation against Vietnam's invasion of Cambodia. This invasion was the last time in East Asia till this day that two armies met each other in a major battle. *
During 2011-16, Professor Stein Tønnesson (PRIO and the Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University), leads a program with support from Riksbankens Jubileumsfond under the following heading: "The East Asian Peace Since 1979: How Deep? How Can It Be Explained?"
In the first three decades after World War II, the world's worst civil and international wars occurred in East Asia. More than three out of four people killed in war were killed in that region. Since 1980 it has been relatively peaceful. East Asia s share of global battle deaths from 1980 to 2008 was less than five percent. This transition from widespread intensive warfare to relative regional peace has not yet been subject to any serious research effort, although the East Asian peace - and the question of its sustainability - are being more and more hotly discussed. Our research program seeks, first, to establish the depth of the East Asian peace since 1979 by mapping conflicts, peace processes and other factors: To what extent is peace just due to stalemates, conflict avoidance or government repression? To what extent has it been entrenched through trust, consensus-seeking culture, mutual dependencies, respect for the rule-of-law and legitimate governmental and inter-governmental institutions? Have political opposition movements perhaps shifted from armed to unarmed strategies of protest and rebellion? Second, our program will explore various possible explanations for the East Asian peace by testing realist, liberal and constructivist approaches, and developing hypotheses and theories of our own, with possible implications for general theory.
The program has a core group, which in addition to Tønnesson consists of Erik Melander, Elin Bjarnegård, Isak Svensson (all Uppsala University) and Timo Kivimäki (Copenhagen University). Susanne Schaftenaar serves as research assistant. The Advisory Board, which takes care of quality control, has the following members: Peter Wallensteen (Uppsala University), Bates Gill (SIPRI), Thommy Svensson (Stockholm China Alliance and Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, Copenhagen), Börje Ljunggren (former ambassador to Vietnam and China and co-ordinator, Stockholm China Forum), Moon Chung-in (Yonsei University), Robert S. Ross (Boston College), Wang Yizhou (Beijing University) and Kevin Clements (University of Otago, New Zealand). The following research associates will work on time-limited projects under the program: Miriam Coronel-Ferrer (Philippines), Anders Engvall (Sweden), Benjamin E. Goldsmith (Australia), Linus Hagström (Sweden), Hoang Anh Tuan (Vietnam), Andreas Jarblad (Sweden), Jong Kun Choi (South Korea), Rex Li (United Kingdom), Liselotte Odgaard (Denmark), Ren Xiao (China), Song Yann-huei (Taiwan), Henrik Urdal (Norway), Jordi Urgell (Spain), Wang Dong (China), Mikael Weissmann (Sweden) and Zou Keyuan (United Kingdom).
The program holds the first of six annual conferences in Uppsala 16-18 September 2011.
* Item from Collection JC-WHSP: Carter White House Photographs Collection, 01/20/1977 - 01/22/1981.
Doctor hc Tor Sellström after the official promotion ceremony together with Professor Peter Wallensteen (l) and Professor Thomas Ohlson (r).
In the Promotion Ceremony on Friday 28 January 2011, the Faculty of Social Sciences at Uppsala University awarded to Tor Sellström (b. 1946) the title and diploma of Honorary Doctor. Sellström receives the degree of Doctor honoris causa (D.h.c.) for his monumental research on the liberation struggles in Southern Africa, and for successfully bridging the fields of academia, policy and practice. Mr. Sellström recently returned from South Africa to Sweden to take up a position as senior researcher at the Nordic Africa Institute (NAI) in Uppsala. His current research project is entitled “African Island States in Peace and Conflict: Rising Tides in the Indian Ocean.”
After finishing his undergraduate and graduate studies at universities in Sweden (Stockholm) and France (Institute of Political Science and Institute of Higher Latin American Studies, Paris), Sellström has worked for 33 years in or on various Southern African countries, in the employment of either the Swedish Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) or the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs. He has also been seconded to various organizations based in the region, among them the Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit (NEPRU) in Windhoek, Namibia. Also, Sellström’s rich experience and knowledge, as well as his extensive network of contacts throughout Southern Africa and beyond, led to his appointment in 2006 as Senior Advisor at the African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD) in Durban, South Africa. ACCORD is Africa’s leading non-governmental organization dealing with conflict resolution, peacekeeping and peacebuilding after armed conflict. It should be noted that ACCORD is also one of three parties to a Sida-sponsored Partnership for Peace and Development in Africa; the other two parties to that partnership being NAI and the Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
Sellström has throughout his career been active in issues related to peace, democracy and development in Africa. His activities has focused problem areas such a conflict management, election observation/monitoring, conflict prevention, mitigation and resolution, humanitarian and development assistance, post-conflict reconstruction and state formation/ nation building. While located in Southern Africa, Sellström continuously contributed through his writings to both academic and political reflection on the southern African liberation struggles.
Sellström was appointed to lead a major research project at NAI (1994-2001) on the role of the Nordic countries in the liberation processes in southern Africa. The output from this project constitutes a comprehensive and unique mapping and descriptive analysis of these processes. The six volumes are a monumental contribution to the study of Southern Africa, the Nordic countries and the interaction between these two. It was, in particular, the three volumes devoted to Sweden’s role in Southern Africa that in 2000 earned Sellström in the gold medal Illis quorum meruere labores by the Swedish government. In 2002, he received the annual FUF Prize awarded by the Swedish NGO Development Forum for the same work.
Professor Thomas Ohlson, Department of Peace and Conflict Research at Uppsala University, is the host of Mr. Sellström. Ohlson says that Sellström has “captured, described and analysed an important, yet previously relatively unknown and quite successful part of Swedish development and foreign policy.” He continues, “Sellström has done this over some 1800 pages with a rare combination of broad and deep knowledge, methodological rigour, linguistic elegance and meticulous attention to detail.”
Henning Melber, Director of the Hammarskjöld Foundation, who worked closely with Sellström in Southern Africa comments: “As Deputy Director of The Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit (NEPRU) in Windhoek, Tor Sellström during the early 1990s contributed to the building of local capacity through his engagement in consolidating the autonomous think tank established at the Independence of Namibia in 1990. That he moved from there to the Nordic Africa Institute (NAI) in Uppsala to coordinate and compile the pioneering series of studies on Nordic support to the anti-colonial struggles in Southern Africa seemed almost a logical continuation of his life-long commitment to emancipatory struggles. The honorary doctorate degree conferred upon him by the University of Uppsala is a well deserved recognition of his merits as a scholar and activist.”
Tor Sellström will deliver his Dr hc lecture at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research during spring 2011 (tba on this webpage).
See here for other honorary doctor at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
Keynote speaker at the conference Prof. Stathis Kalyvas (l), together with Associate Prof. Kristine Höglund and Prof. Peter Wallensteen.
The biannual National Conference on Peace and Conflict Research – sponsored by Folke Bernadotte Academy – held at Uppsala University on 16–17 December 2010 concluded in success. During the one and a half conference days ongoing research in the broad realm of peace and conflict was discussed among PhD students and scholars active in research environments in Sweden. Among the over 60 participants attending the conference there were also researchers from African research milieus and the Peace Research Institute in Oslo. Professor Stathis Kalyvas, Yale University was the conference keynote speaker on the theme: “The Transformation of Civil Wars: 1800–2010”. "The Future of Peace and Conflict Research" was discussed in a round table with Associate Professor Karin Aggestam, Lund University, Professor Christine Sylvester, Göteborg University/Lancaster University and Professor Peter Wallensteen, Uppsala University. Associate Professor Kristine Höglund was moderating the discussion. The final conference program can be found below.
The previous national conference in 2008 was successfully organized in Lund. The National Conference 2012 will be held in Göteborg and the 2014 conference in Umeå.Conference webpageReimbursement for travel costs
We are happy to announce the publishing of the newest book by Professor Peter Wallensteen and Associate Professor Isak Svensson called "The Go-Between - Jan Eliasson and the Styles of Mediation". The publishing of the book was accompanied by three international book launches, stretching from USIP in Washington D.C., USA, over the Göteborg book fair in Sweden, to Otago University, New Zealand. Jan Eliasson, whose remarkable mediation experience over the last decades is analyzed in the book, has repeatedly been a Visiting Professor at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research in Uppsala.
Isak Svensson and Peter Wallensteen, The Go-Between, Jan Eliasson and the Styles of Mediation, Washington: U.S. Institute of Peace Press (2010)Success in international mediation hinges on the skill, style, and methods of the mediator. This volume explores international mediation through the lens of Ambassador Jan Eliasson, an international go-between with a remarkable track record.
Authors Svensson and Wallensteen contend that international mediators’ styles vary in four dimensions—scope, method, mode, and focus—and that the mandate mediators receive strongly determines the style they adopt. The authors draw lessons for the peacemaking process from their examination of how Eliasson entered, prepared, pursued, and finally ended his mediation efforts.
Svensson and Wallensteen evaluate Eliasson’s role in six cases: two missions on the Iran-Iraq conflict; two cases of humanitarian diplomacy, in Burma/Myanmar and in Sudan; and two cases of internal armed conflicts, in Nagorno-Karabakh and in Darfur. Analyzing the role of the mediator in each of these instances offers insight into the constraints mediators face and outcomes they may achieve in other scenarios. The authors conclude with ten implications for mediation research and practice.
As a special feature of this volume, the authors incorporate excerpts from extensive interviews and diary entries from Jan Eliasson on his mediation experiences.
This autumn will see the release of two books at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research:
Following the Gothenburg Book Fair’s focus on Africa this year, researchers of the Department had a panel discussion on how to solve the continent’s numerous armed conflicts. Findings from the two books were presented by Professor Thomas Ohlson and Visiting Professor Jan Eliasson (former Swedish Foreign Minister and UNSG envoy to Darfur), with Associate Professor Erik Noreen, head of the Department, as moderator.From Intra-State War to Durable Peace: Conflict and Its Resolution in Africa after the Cold War.Based on the three departure points – a novel framework, previously unpublished data on conflict and a conflict resolution in Africa, and a survey of external and internal structural constraints facing the continent – this volume is a comprehensive examination of intra-state armed conflicts in Africa after the Cold War and of attempts to terminate them and challenges to the successful termination of wars. The focus is on short-term concerns: demilitarisation, issues related to human and collective security, and the post-conflict distribution of political power. Chapters centre on key explanatory factors influencing the volatile periods just before and after a war is terminated, when negotiation replaces fighting and when peace agreements are being hammered out and implemented, often in an environment of fear, mistrust and resource scarcity.The Go-Between, Jan Eliasson and the Styles of MediationThis volume explores international mediation through the lens of Ambassador Jan Eliasson, an international go-between with a remarkable track record.Authors Svensson and Wallensteen contend that international mediators’ styles vary in four dimensions—scope, method, mode, and focus—and that the mandate media¬tors receive strongly determines the style they adopt. The authors draw lessons for the peacemaking process from their examination of how Eliasson entered, prepared, pursued, and finally ended his mediation efforts. Svensson and Wallensteen evaluate Eliasson’s role in six cases, which offers insight into the constraints mediators face and outcomes they may achieve in other scenarios. The authors conclude with ten implications for mediation research and practice.As a special feature of this volume, the authors incorporate excerpts from extensive interviews and diary entries from Jan Eliasson on his mediation experiences.
The Department of Peace and Conflict Research will together with its Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) be represented at the Gothenburg Book Fair, 23-26 September 2010. Visit our booth at the Research Square (forskartorget) to get an introduction to the Uppsala Conflict Database, the work of the Department and our latest publications!
The focus of this year’s book fair is Africa, and members of the Department will have a panel discussion about how to solve the continent’s numerous armed conflicts. Professor Thomas Ohlson and Visiting Professor Jan Eliasson (former Swedish Foreign Minister and UNSG envoy to Darfur) will present insights from two forthcoming books.
Location: Sunday, 26 September 2010, 11.20 a.m., International Square (Internationella Torget), Stora Scen.
Professor Håkan Wiberg, born in 1942, passed away at his home in Copenhagen on July 3, 2010. It is a great loss to Scandinavian peace research. Håkan Wiberg was strongly committed to the advancement of scholarly understanding of peace and war. He meant a lot to the Department and served as Visiting Professor in 2001, when he gave a much-appreciated course on Peace Research Classics.
Håkan Wiberg was Professor of Sociology at Lund University and Director of the Copenhagen Peace Research Institute, COPRI, until its merger into the Danish Institute of International Studies. He had a background in philosophy and mathematics, and displayed deep knowledge of history, thus exemplifying the value of cross-disciplinarity.
Håkan Wiberg was a pioneer of peace research at Swedish universities. It is sad that his own university, Lund University, did not embrace the idea at the time, in spite of intensive efforts. Wiberg devoted considerable time and energy to COPRI, which he turned into an active milieu, where the work of Barry Buzan and Ole Waever (the so-called Copenhagen School) found a productive environment.
His book Konfliktteori och fredsforskning (Conflict Theory and Peace Research, 1976, 1990) was a cornerstone in peace studies in Scandinavia and expressed his comprehensive and at the same time focused understanding of the discipline. It inspired generations of students and researchers.
Professor Wiberg demonstrated an encyclopedic knowledge into a variety of issues of central concern to peace research. This made him a significant contributor in many research areas. He could combine thoughts into surprising and stimulating conclusions. His broad insight and openness made him an excellent external examiner (opponent) and member of dissertation committees, promotion review boards, as well as editorial committees, for instance of the Journal of Peace Research (where he was the longest serving member of its editorial board). Wiberg was also a key actor behind the European Peace Research Association, and was devoted to IPRA, the International Peace Research Association.
Among his many scholarly achievements was bringing game theory into Nordic peace research, adding fresh ideas into early sanctions studies, contributing to theories of civilian resistance and working on a major project on youth and the future in the 1960s and 1970s. In particular, he was intensively engaged in furthering the idea of peace research as such and what it can now teach about conflict and peace.
He was seriously concerned about certain conflict regions, notably the Horn of Africa and the Balkans, and about the US policies in Iraq and Afghanistan. He constantly searched for non-violent ways of dealing with conflict. Indeed, he had a strong personal commitment to peace, which made him an early conscientious objector to the Swedish draft system, which actually resulted in his imprisonment.
Professor Håkan Wiberg will be remembered as a great personality, with empathy and many intellectual and social skills. Teachers, researchers and students of Uppsala University profited from his many and productive seminars. Håkan Wiberg is deeply missed.
For the first time the Department arranged a celebration for the students that have successfully graduated from the Master Programme 'Politics and International Studies', with a specialization in peace and conflict studies. It took place on June 4, 2010 in the Main University Building. The picture shows the new Masters with teachers and staff of the Department.
The Department has successfully graduated four Ph.D.s during the past academic year, three of whom participated in the Promotion ceremony, in the Uppsala Main University Building, Friday 28, 2010. From left: Jannie Lilja, Erika Forsberg and Hanne Fjelde. Pedro Valenzuela, based in Bogota, Colombia, could not participate. Hanne Fjelde was also selected by the University Rector to give the speech of the new doctors to their teachers at the gala dinner in Uppsala Castle following the promotion ceremony.
"We are happy to see this strong turnout from our reseach education program" says the Head of Department, Associate Professor Erik Noreen. "Not the least is the high number of female graduates gratifying".
Professor emeritus J. David Singer, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, died on December 28, 2009 following a car accident three months earlier. He was a path-breaking social scientist that gave new directions to research in world politics. He served as the President of the International Studies Association. Singer also played a role in the origins of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program. He is deeply missed at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
Singer served in the US Navy during and after the Second World War and was also an active world federalist, before going into academics. These experiences influenced his research. Following the lead of Quincy Wright and Pitirim Sorokin he asked why wars continued to break out and how the international system made this possible. Influenced be the behavioral and statistical revolutions in social science as well as general systems theory he launched the Correlates of War (COW) project in the mid-1960s. The purpose was to understand why a particular type of behavior, war, took place. Prudently he was not talking about ‘causes’ but ‘correlates’: finding the factors that appeared at the same time as or preceded the wars. He led an extensive data-gathering endeavor, which mapped the entire international system since the times of Napoleon with respect to military expenditures, demographic information, and alliances, to name but a few. New variables were continuously added to investigate the correlates of war. Determining which variables were potentially relevant required creative and innovative theorizing, something which Singer emphasized and made him open to new ideas. The project continues to this day, now lead by former Singer student Professor Paul Diehl, at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
COW remains one of the grandest projects in international relations and peace research. Singer’s persistence, feistiness in defending the idea, industriousness in finding resources, and ability to recruit talented young researchers made COW central to the discipline and a model for how new insights could be generated.
J. David Singer visited Uppsala and the Department of Peace and Conflict Research for the first time in the summer of 1979 (see picture). At this time, the Uppsala Conflict Data Program was in its infancy. His visit and the ensuing discussions resulted not only in a refinement of the program, but also many personal exchanges between Uppsala and Ann Arbor. Singer’s last visit was to a major conference in 2001 which brought together a number of global data collection projects, all of which were in some sense off-springs of Singer’s original ambitions.
Along with the numerous articles, chapters and books on aspects of the Correlates of War project, Singer also elaborated on the ‘level of analysis’ problem (one of his most reproduced articles), arms control issues, UN affairs, and peace research in general. He constantly asked for rigor, evidence, and parsimonious language, demands that remain important.
It has been a privilege to have been exposed to the continuous intellectual challenges that J. David Singer raised to the research community. This brave and path-breaking scientist leaves us with a strong legacy.
Professor of Peace and Conflict Research
Director, Uppsala Conflict Data Program
On Friday 27th of November the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) launched the latest publication in its annual States in Armed Conflict series. States in Armed Conflict 2008 maps and analyses the number of armed conflicts, non-state conflicts and incidents of one-sided violence around the globe in 2008. In addition to the UCDP’s contributions to the Journal of Peace Research and the SIPRI Yearbook this year’s edition also contains a special feature on one-sided violence; Revisiting One-sided Violence – A Global and Regional Analysis. This paper, which is available as a PDF-file, analyses the global incidence of one-sided violence since 1989, compares regional disparities, and uses statistics to show what countries are specifically at risk of experiencing one-sided violence. You can download the PDF file here.
The full report can be ordered by contacting the Department of Peace and Conflict Research. For more detailed information on the specific cases of organized violence in 2008, visit the UCDP Database.
Three Case Studies and one general report were successfully presented to the UN Mediation Support Unit of the UN Department of Political Affairs on November 19, 2009.
At a workshop in New York, entirely devoted to the Uppsala work, researchers Desirée Nilsson, Johan Brosché and Peter Wallensteen introduced the work of the Uppsala team which also has involved Roland Kostic and Mikael Eriksson. The presentation was well-attended and each report was well received.
The team has analyzed three peace agreements, Liberia, Sudan and Bosnia-Herzegovina from three separate angles: public security, power-sharing and reconciliation. A set of lessons learned has been distilled for each of the three cases. Together with the outcomes of the Uppsala workshop held in September this has resulted in 18 additional general recommendations ('the Uppsala recommendations').
The purpose of this research was to draw conclusions of general value for the work of the Mediation Support Unit. This Unit is a new body in the UN created to further peacemaking efforts of the UN Secretariat in conflict situations around the world. The Uppsala work was commissioned on a grant given to the UN by the government of Canada.
The above mentioned reports can be downloaded here or purchased by the Department. The price is 50 SEK + distributional cost (without value added tax). For further info, contact: Ulla.Oberg@pcr.uu.se.
Report Summary in Swedish
Wednesday evening, October 14, the internationally respected, previous President of the International Studies Association, Professor Nils Petter Gleditsch at PRIO, the international peace research institute in Oslo, Norway (PRIO), received the Möbius Prize. It is one of Norway’s most prestigious research awards, handed out by the Norwegian Research Council, once a year. Gleditsch was a Visiting Professor at the Department in Uppsala at several occasions during the 1990s.
"It is most wonderful and a very well deserved Prize! His stays in Uppsala resulted in deepened cooperation, not the least around the systematic collections of conflict data, which has been good for both milieus and for the international research community", says Professor Peter Wallensteen, old friend and colleague to Gleditsch.
Gleditsch’ research has lately concerned the issues of Democratic Peace as well as natural resources and conflict. An important achievement is his commitment to the Journal of Peace Research. Under his leadership it has come to be a central journal in international peace research. Several researchers in the Department are engaged in its editorial committees, notably Associate Professors Mats Hammarström and Magnus Öberg. Research cooperation between the two milieus have blossomed in recent years.
http://www.prio.no/News/NewsItem/?oid=49830097 (press release, PRIO)
http://www.prio.no/sptrans/-393209831/Takketale%20M%C3%B6bius.pdf (Gleditsch speech of thanks, in Norwegian).
The Department of Peace and Conflict Research notes that the Nobel Peace Prize 2009 has been awarded to President Barack Obama “for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples.”
Erik Noreen, Head of the Department of Peace and Conflict Research, commented the decision of the Nobel Peace Prize Committee, as follows: “This is an unexpected and courageous decision to award the Nobel Peace Prize to Barack Obama, and we hope that he will continue his efforts to engage in and promote diplomacy and international cooperation, in particularly within the United Nations.”
"President Obama receives the prize for having created a new climate in international politics", says Professor Peter Wallensteen. Wallensteen states further: "There is no doubt that he has done just that, for instance through his speech to the Muslim world and his resort to diplomacy for non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Research suggests that "climate" is important for the peaceful management and resolution of international conflict. In that respect, the prize to Obama rewards a pattern of behavior that it now is up to others leaders to follow, and that he himself hopefully can pursue in the two wars he has do deal with right now." Read Professor Peter Wallensteen's comment on Uppsala Nya Tidning "USA vaknade till nyheten."
Last year's laureate Martti Ahtisaari (in the picture together with Professor Peter Wallensteen) received the Peace Prize for "his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts." One month before Mr Ahtisaari was announced to receive the Nobel Price, he received the Dag Hammarskjöld Medal in Uppsala. In a seminar with scholars from the Department and other experts Ahtisaari elaborated on his experiences as a mediator. The Department has had continuous relations with mediators and Nobel Laureates, notably Jimmy Carter and Kofi Annan. Jan Eliasson, UN Mediator for Darfur 2007-08, was also a visting Professor with the Department.
The Department of Peace and Conflict Research, founded in 1971, conducts research in several major areas of peace and conflict studies. Moreover, it houses its own data collection program, the internationally renowned Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP), which provides a unique freely and globally accessible dataset for frontline research around the world. Researchers at the department utilize a range of quantitative and qualitative methods, and amongst them can be found expertise on most regions of the world. This ensures that the research pursued contributes to academia as well as policymaking. It is a unique research environment and is internationally recognized as a leading institution in its field.
On September 21, 2009, the Department organized a workshop assessing the lessons learned from three major peace agreements: Bosnia, Liberia and Sudan. The Department researchers Roland Kostic, Desirée Nilsson and Johan Brosché presented studies on issues of reconciliation, security and power sharing where each case served to illustrate one of these aspects. The workshop included case experts as well as generalists from the UN, Sida and leading research milieus internationally and in Sweden. In the concluding session Peter Wallensteen, project leader, drew some general lessons, to be elaborated in a report by him and Mikael Eriksson, the chief organizer of the meeting. In November, the final report will be handed over to the UN Mediation Support Unit who has commissioned this study. The workshop was set so as to constitute an activity in the UN Day of International Peace. For more information contact Dr Mikael Eriksson, email@example.com
The first graduates from the two-year MA programme, together with Mats Hammarström after having defended their theses.
With the beginning of September over thirty new students started in the two-year Master programme at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research. In the last two years that the new two-year Master programme, which is in accordance to the EU Bologna reform process requirements, is offered at the Department the national and international reputation of the studies increased steadily.
In comparison to 2008 the number of applications received by the Department of Peace and Conflict Research doubled to over 1400 aspiring students, out of which the majority were international applicants. Anders Nilsson, who is Director of Studies at the Department, is very pleased with the development of the last years: “The number and quality of applications we received this year is reflecting the growing reputation of the Master programme in Uppsala. Although the feedback from recent graduate students illustrates the sound quality of education provided to students in this two year programme, we are working constantly on improving the quality of education.” “Our goal is to offer all students excellent teaching and cutting edge course contents,” says Nilsson.
The new students began with the course ‘Causes of Armed Conflicts’, taught by Professor Thomas Ohlson. Other Master students, which have started in 2008 are currently attending courses in International Negotiations, New Military and Non-Military Security Threats or doing Internships. In July 2009 the first group of two-year Master students graduated from the Department.
The Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) has now launched two new datasets for researchers and students. Firstly, the latest version of the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Dataset (1946-2008) is now available for downloading. This dataset was launched in conjunction with PRIO's 50th anniversary in Oslo. Secondly, the UCDP has announced the launchof its newest dataset; the Non-State Actor Dataset, which outlines the names, affiliations and activity of all non-state actors that have been recorded in UCDP datasets. Both datasets can be downloaded at the UCDP's website. A comment on the trends in armed conflcits between 1946 and 2008 is also available as a brochure.
Between the 5th and 12th of June the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo, (PRIO) celebrated its 50th anniversary as a research institute. The Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) - a long-time collaborator of PRIO's - visited the celebrations where the latest version of the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Dataset (1946-2008) was launched. The launch was followed by a seminar on the impact and uses of this dataset on armed conflicts, as well as the handing over from the UCDP to PRIO of a celebratory brochure that outlined the trends in armed conflicts since 1946 and developments in 2008.
The former and the present Director of Studies received their Doctoral insignia at the University's annual promotion ceremony on May 29, 2009.
Dr Lisa Hultman defended her dissertation on May 31 last year. Titled Targeting the Unarmed. Startegic Rebel Violence in Civil War she defended her work in a disputation with Dr Scott Gates, Oslo, as the external examiner (opponent). She then served as Director of Studies at the Department.
Dr Anders Nilsson's dissertation on Dangerious Liasions. Why Ex-Combatants Return to Violence. Cases from the Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone was examined on December 19, 2008 with Prof. Joanna Spear, George Washington University as the opponent. Following this Dr Nilsson replaced Dr Hultman as Director of Studies.
On the picture they are seen together with Professor Peter Wallensteen.
On May 6–15, participants from around the globe met in Uppsala for the Top-Level Seminar on Peace and Security (TOPS). The theme of this programme was Challenges to Durable Peace and ten different countries were represented in the programme to discuss issues pertaining to peace and security in conflict-ridden societies. The programme is financed by Sida.
In May 2008, the Government of Canada made a donation to the United Nation’s Mediation Support Unit’s (MSU) trust fund to support a project named “The Peace Agreement Evaluation Project” (PAEP). MSU later awarded Faculty members of the Department of Peace and Conflict Research to carry out this research assignment. The project is to be completed by the end of 2009.
The aim of this project aims to examine three Peace Processes in order to analyze notably successful or unsuccessful elements of these (cases included are: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Liberia and Sudan). In essence, the project will seek to identify the qualities that tend to help promote sustainability of a peace processes and, conversely, those which tend to weaken them. The PAEP will seek to identify “lessons learned” from previous peace processes and help guide the United Nations and other peacemaking entities towards crafting more effective peace agreements. Recommendations will provide significant material for shaping MSU’s real-time advice given as part of support to United Nations and other partners working assisting to negotiate peace agreements. Project members include the following researchers: Mikael Eriksson (project leader), Professor Peter Wallensteen (scientific advisor), Dr. Desirée Nilsson, Dr. Roland Kostic and PhD Candidate Johan Brosché. For further details, please contact anyone above (e-mails located in Faculty Staff List on this website).
Democratization is a field where unexpected and sudden events have repeatedly challenged conventional wisdom. For example, who in the mid-1970s would have foreseen the democratization of Cambodia, Albania, South Africa or East Timor? Our current wave of democratization is complex and diverse and understanding it requires a variety of theoretical approaches.
Most of the literature on democracy assumes that it is the best form of government. Theoretical works on democratic transition and democratization have also emphasized the internal conflict resolution capacity of democracy. It has been reasoned that democracy reduces the likelihood of discrimination, especially of ethno-political minorities, and thus the possibility of political repression. However, the democratic peace theory has not been explicitly tested with reference to third world post-colonial states, where most internal violent conflicts take place. Certainly, there is a dearth of practical advice for policy makers on how to design and implement democratic levers that can make internal peace and stability endure in the South.
This volume, drawing among others on the work of six scholars from the Department of Peace and Conflict Research, contributes to identifying and understanding the challenges and opportunities of this democratization project to the peace and development of the world both at the domestic level in selected countries, trends in regions of the world, and in the global system of the post-Col War Era.
From 15 to 18 February a number of researchers from the Department joined the biggest annual event for academics in the field of international studies. This year the convention was held in New York, and thousands of researchers from around the world presented papers and participate in workshops and panel discussions. Abstracts and papers in full-text are available online.
The University Board [Konsistoriet] of Uppsala University decided on November 5, 2008, to give an annual appropriation to the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) for the up-keep of its conflict database. This is a part of the University’s decision to make peace, democracy and justice a profile research area for the University.
– This is very encouraging, says the Director of UCDP, Professor Peter Wallensteen. “It means that basic work of the data collection and presentation now is secured. The database can continue to be an international resource based at Uppsala University and reinforce the University as a preeminent center for peace research. It also means that UCDP researchers now can focus their creativity on front-line research.”
The UCDP is a world leading provider of data on armed conflicts around the world. The program has existed for more than 25 years. Its information is annually presented in the SIPRI Yearbook (since 1988), Journal of Peace Research (JPR, since 1993), the Human Security Report (since 2005) and in the in-house publication States in Armed Conflict. Its information is used in scholarly articles, popular media and teaching resources worldwide. Its articles in JPR are among the most cited sources internationally on armed conflicts in recent years.
– Previously, funding for the UCDP has been based on grants received in stiff competition from funding agencies, such as the Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, The Science Council of Sweden, The Folke Bernadotte Academy and Sida. This has provided concern for the sustainability of the database, and that insecurity has now been removed, says Dr Erik Melander, Deputy Director of UCDP.
Professor Peter Wallensteen (to the right), a member of the Lecture Committee, moderated the discussions with President Ahtisaari in the University Aula (Photo: Tommy Westberg).
The Department of Peace and Conflict Research congratulates Martti Ahtisaari, President of Finland 1994-2000, for receiving the Nobel Peace Prize 2008. Peter Wallensteen, Dag Hammaskjöld Professor at the Department, said: "Ahtisaari's tireless efforts for Peace on several continentsNOW get the recognition they deserve. It is important that mediation initiatives are encouraged by the international community."
The Department has had continuous relations with mediators and Nobel Laureates, notably Jimmy Carter and Kofi Annan. Jan Eliasson, UN Mediator for Darfur 2007-08, is also a visting Professor with the Department.
Erik Noreen, Head of the Department, joins the congratulations: "Our congratulations go to Helsinki! We are thankful, not just for Mr Ahtisaari's hard-working efforts for Peace, but especially for sharing his first hand experiences with students and scholars in Uppsala less than four weeks ago."
Ahtisaari held Dag Hammarskjöld Lecture in September.
Mr Martii Ahtisaari, was this year’s Dag Hammarskjöld Lecturer (see photo). He spoke to large student audience in the University Aula on September 18, the day Hammarskjöld died in Africa in 1961. Ahtisaari’s theme was “Can the International Community Meet the Challenges Ahead of Us?” In particular he emphasized rising unemployment among youth as a major challenge and a potential sources of conflict. In the questions and answers session he elaborated on his experience as a mediator and on the Kosovo conflict. The majority of the questions came from students in the Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
After leaving office Ahtisaari founded the Crisis Management Initiative, an organization based in Helsinki, Finland, that was instrumental in concluding a peace agreement in the Aceh conflict in Indonesia. Ahtisaari was also the UN negotiator in the Kosovo conflict from 2005 on. Earlier he worked with the UN and led the first comprehensive peace keeping mission, launched in Namibia in 1988.
The annual Dag Hammarskjöld Lecture is a joint undertaking between Uppsala University and the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation. Apart from the public lecture, Ahitsaari also talked to an expert seminar on mediation and received the special Hammarskjöld medal from the hands of the University Vice Chancellor, Dr Anders Hallberg. The Lecture is regularly published by Hammarskjöld Foundation (in English). Lecturer 2007 were Sture Linnér and Sverker Åström, both having worked with Hammarskjöld. Their lectures, in Swedish, are available from the Department.
Lisa Hultman (left) in talks with new students at the Department. Lisa Hultman succeeded Louise Olsson as Director of Studies for the undergraduate and Master level in August.
The Department introduces several innovative and interactive courses on Master level. One exemple during this Fall is International Negotiation: Theories and Practice. This course provides an overview of negotiation theories and practices of international importance. The emphasis is on different approaches to understanding what drives negotiation process and explains the outcome. Case studies and examples from different issue areas are used to learn more generally about contemporary international negotiations. The course is taught through lectures, seminars, exercises, and a study trip.
Other interesting courses given by the department during Fall term 2008 are Causes of War and New Non-Military Threats.
More information about the departments education.
In November 2008 the Department is welcoming 25 participants from developing countries all over the world for a ten days long Top Level Seminar on Peace and Security. This advanced international training programme is funded by Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). The target group is university researchers, teachers, decision makers in international organisations and NGO’s, as well as persons with considerable experience from relevant governmental agencies. The Department has been running similar training programs since the 1980’s.
Sharon Stone visits the Department of Peace and Conflict Research to receive input from Deptartment experts.
From left: Karen Brounéus, Jan Eliasson, Sharon Stone, Peter Wallensteen and Ann-Marie Tung Hermelin in the University Hall May 28, 2008 (Photo: private) (watch the video of the panel discussion).
On May 28, 2008 famous US actress Sharon Stone visited the Department of Peace and Conflict Research in Uppsala. In addition to acting, Ms. Stone is involved in lobbying work and fundraising activities for combatting HIV/AIDS and other diseases, particularly in Africa. Of late, she has also focused her efforts on the linkages between deteriorating health conditions and armed conflict.
Thus, Ms. Stone’s visit to the Department centred on possible connections between Health and Peace. Department researchers briefed Ms. Stone on significant recent findings on this linkage. Ms. Stone was very engaged and exchanged views with the researchers.
After the meeting at the Department Ms Stone gave a press conference where she presented her own ideas on a peace department. Then she participated in a public round table discussion in the University Aula Magna. The session was chaired by Professor Peter Wallensteen from the DPCR. The other participants were Dr. Karen Brounéus, who presented key aspects of her recent dissertation on mental health and Rwanda, and Ms Ann-Marie Tung Hermelin from the Center for the study of men’s violence against women. Visting Professor and Ambassador Jan Eliasson commented on the presentations and added from his experience as the UN Special Envoy for Darfur in Sudan.
At a following lunch, offered by the Rector of Uppsala University, Professor Anders Hallberg, Ms. Stone also heard presentations from the Faculty of Medicine of Uppsala University.