Sanctions: a Bibliographic Manual

Table of contents:

Stand Alone Publications, Reports or Papers by Publishers or Institutions

International Sanctions in General

Ahmed, Samina, and Cortright, David. South Asia at the Nuclear Crossroads, U.S. Policy Options Toward South Asian Nuclear Proliferation: The Role of Sanctions and Incentives. Managing of the Atom Project at Harvard University, the Fourth Freedom Forum, and the Joan B. Krock Institute for International Peace Studies (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame: 2001).

Amini, Gitty M. A Larger Role for Positive Sanctions in Cases of Compellence? Working Paper no. 12, Center for International Relations (California: University of California, 1997).

Bethlehem, Ronnie, Kane-Berman, John, and Mogoba, Stanley. Sanctions and the Alternatives (Johannesburg: South African Institute of Race relations, 1988).

Brierly, James Leslie. Sanctions (London, 1932).

Brzoska, M (ed.). Design and Implmentation of Arms Embargoes and Travel and Aviation Related Sanctions: Results of the 'Bonn-Berlin Process'. German Foreign Office in Cooperation With the United Nations Secretariat (Bonn: International Center for Conversion, 2001).

Brozoska, Michel (ed.). Smart Sanctions: the Next Steps: the Debate on Arms Embargoes and Travel Sanctions within the 'Bonn-Berlin Process'. BICC, Bonn International Center for Conversion, No. 6 (Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 2001).

Cortright, David and Lopez, George A. With Wagler, Julia, Conroy, Richard W. and Dashti-Gibson, Jaleh. The Sanctions Decade: Assessing UN Strategies in the 1990s (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000).

Dietrich, Christian. Hard Currency: The Criminalized Diamond Economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and its Neighbours. Occasional Paper no. 4. Partnership Africa Canada (Partnership Africa Canada: Ottawa, 2002).

Elliot, Kimberly Ann. Towards a Framework For Multilateral Sanctions (Atlanta: Carter Center, 1996).

Gazzini, Tarcisio. Sanctions Against Air Terrorism: Legal Obligations of States. Conflict Studies, no. 290 (London: Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism, 1996).

Michailovi’c, Kosta (ed.). Sanctions: Causes, Legitimacy, Legality and Effects: Proceedings of the Round Table Held on 14 and 15 June 1994. Presented to the 6th Meeting of the Department of Social Sciences, held on 20 September 1994 (Belgrade: Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 1995).

Minear, L., Cortright, D., Wagler, J. Lopez, GA., and Weiss, Thomas, G. Toward more Humane and Effective Sanctions Management: Enhancing the Capacity of the United Nations System. Occasional Paper, no. 31 Thomas J. Watson Jr. Institute for International Studies (Providence: Brown University, 1998).

Mitchell, John V. Companies in a World of Conflict: NGOs, Sanctions and Corporate Responsibility. Papers from a Workshop Organized in Oslo by the Royal Institute of International Affairs (London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1998).

Mitrany, David. The Problem of International Sanctions (London: Oxford University Press, 1925).

Nossal, Kim Richard. Rain Dancing: Sanctions in Canadian and Australian Foreign Policy (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994).

Osada, Masako. Sanctions and Honorary Whites: Diplomatic Policies and Economic Realities in Relations between Japan and South Africa (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001).

Ross, John F. L.: Neutrality and International Sanctions: Sweden, Switzerland and Collective Security (New York: Praeger, 1989).

Rowan-Robinson, H. Sanctions Begone!: A Plea and a Plan for the Reform of the League (London: Clowes, 1936).

Sparrow, Gerald. Sanctions (London: British Commonwealth Union, 1969).

Stremlau, John. Sharpening International Sanctions: Towards a Stronger Role for the United Nations. A report to the Carnegie Commission on preventing deadly conflict (New York: Carnegie Corporation, 1996).

Tomasevski, Katarina. Between Sanctions and Elections: Aid Donors and Their Human Rights Performance (London: Pinter, 1997).

Wallensteen, Peter. (ed.). International Sanctions: Theory and Practice. Proceedings of the Nordic Conference on Sanction Research, Sigtuna, Sweden, April 27-28, 1968. Report 1 (Uppsala: Department of Peace and Conflict Research, 1969).

--- and Eriksson, M and Staibano C. (eds.). Results of the Stockholm Process on the Implementation of Targeted Sanctions. Department of Peace and Conflict Research in Cooperation with the Swedish foregin Ministry and with the UN Secretariat (Uppsala: Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala Univeristy, 2003).

Webster, Charles Kingsley. Sanctions: The Use of Force in an International Organisation (London: David Davies Memorial Institute of International Studies, 1956).

United Nations Sanctions and League of Nations:
Bhatia, Michael V. War and Intervention: Issues for Contemporary Peace Operations (Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, Inc., 2003).

Boggs, George T. and Paxman, John M. (eds.). The United Nations: A Reassessment - Sanctions, Peacekeeping, and Humanitarian Assistance (Charlottesville: Virginia Legal Studies, 1973).

Brüderlein, Claude. Coping With the Humanitarian Impact of Sanctions: An OCHA Perspective (New York: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, OCHA, 1998).

Burci, G. L. “The Indirect Effects of United Nations Sanctions on Third States: the Role of the Article 50 of the Charter”, in African Year Book of International Law vol. 2. (Norwell: Kluwer Academic Publisher, 1994)

Burciul, Barry A. United Nations Sanctions: Policy Options for Canada (Ottawa: Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 1998).

Conlon, Paul. “Mitigation of UN Sanctions”, in German Yearbook of International Law, vol. 39. Universität Kiel, Institut fûr Internationales Recht (Berlin: Duncher and Humbolt, 1996)

--. Sanctions Infrastructure and Activities of the United Nations: A Critical Assessment (Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, Task Force on Economic Sanctions, 1995).

Cooper, A, Andrew F., English, John, and Thakur, Ramesh C (eds.) Enhancing Global Governance: Towards a New Diplomacy? (Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2002).

Cortright, David and Lopez, George A. Sanctions and the Search for Security: Challenges to UN Action (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002).

Doxey, Margaret P. United Nations Sanctions: Current Policy Issues Center for Foreign Policy Studies (Halifax: Dalhouise University, , 1999).

--. International Sanctions in Contemporary Perspective. 2. ed. (New York: St. Martins Press, 1996).

van Genugten, Wilhelm J.M., and Groot, Gerhard A de (eds.). United Nations Sanctions: Effectiveness and Effects, Especially in the Field of Human Rights (Antwerpen: Intersentia Law Publishers, 1999).

Haass, Richard N. and O’Sullivan, Meghan L. (eds.). Honey and Vinegar: Incentives, Sanctions and Foreign Policy (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2000).

Hanlon, Joseph and Omond Roger. The Sanctions Handbook (New York: Penguin books, 1987).

Hoskins, Eric. The Impact of Sanctions: a Study of UNICEF’s Perspective (New York: UNICEF Office of Emergency Programmes, 1998).

Knight, Andy W. The United Nations and Arms Embargo Verification (Lewiston: the Edwin Mellen Press, 1998).

Manning, Charles Anthony Woodward. Sanctions Under the Covenant. Montague Burton International Relations Lecture (Nottingham: University College, 1936).

Martin, Lisa L. and Laurenti, Jeffrey. The United Nations and Economic Sanctions: Improving Regime Effectiveness. Paper, UN-USA International Dialogue on the Enforcement of Security Council Resolutions (New York: United Nations Association of the United States of America, 1997).

O'Sullivan, Meghan L. Shrewed Sanctions: Statecraft and State Sponsors of Terrorism (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institutions Press, 2003).

Sarolea, Charles. The Policy of Sanctions and the Failure of the League of Nations (London, 1936).

International Economic Sanctions

Alerassool, Mahvash. Freezing Assets: The USA and the Most Effective Economic Sanctions (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993).

Askari, Hossein. Economic Sanctions: Examining their Philosophy and Efficacy (Westport: Praeger, 2003).

Baruch, Bernard M. The Making of the Reparation and Economic Sanctions of the Treaty (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1920).

Bienen, Henry, and Giplin, Robert. Evaluation of the Use of Economic Sanctions to Promote Foreign Policy Objectives. Unpublished paper, Boeing Corp., 1979.

Carter, Barry E. International Economic Sanctions: Improving the Haphazard U.S. Legal Regime (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).

Chan, Steve and Cooper Drury, A. (eds.). Sanctions as Economic Statecraft: Theory and Practice (New York: St.: Martin’s Press, 2000).

Clark, E (ed.). Boycotts and Peace. A Report by the Committee on Economic Sanctions (New York; Harper and Brothers, 1932.

Cortright, David and Lopez, George A. (eds.). Smart Sanctions: Targeting Economic Statecraft (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002).

--. Economic Sanctions: Panacea or Peacebuilding in a Post-Cold War World? (Boulder: Westveiw Press, 1995).

Daoudi M.S, and Danjani M.S. Economic Sanctions: Ideals and Experience (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983).

Doxey, Margaret P. Economic Sanctions and International Enforcement (London: Macmillan for the Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1980).

--. Economic Sanctions and International Enforcement (London: Oxford University Press, 1971).

--. Economic Sanctions: Past Lessons and the Case of Rhodesia. Behind the Headlines Series; vol. 27, no. 2. (Toronto: Canadian Institute of International Affairs, 1968).

Drezner, Daniel W. The Sanctions Paradox: Economic Statecraft and International Relations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

Evans, Clark (ed.), and Butler, Nicholas Murray. Boycotts and Peace: A Report by the Committee on Economic Sanctions (London: Harper and Brothers, 1932).

Haass, Richard N. and O’Sullivan, Meghan L. (ed.). Economic Sanctions and American Diplomacy (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1998).

Hayes, John Philip. Economic Effects of Sanctions on Southern Africa (Aldershot: Trade Policy Research Centres, 1987).

Gary Clyde, Schott, Jeffery J. and Ann Elliott, Kimberly. Economic Sanctions Reconsidered. History and Current Policy. 2 ed. (Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 1990).

--. Economic Sanctions Reconsidered: History and Current Policy. Institute for International economics (Washington D.C.: MIT press, 1985).

--. Economic Sanctions in Support of Foreign Policy Goals (Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 1983).

Leyton-Brown, David (ed.). The Utility of International Economic Sanctions (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987).

Losman, Donald L. International Economic Sanctions: the Cases of Cuba, Israel, and Rhodesia (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1979).

Malloy, Michael P. Economic Sanctions and U.S. Trade (Little: Brown and Co., 1990).

Martin, Lisa L. and Laurenti, Jeffrey. Coercive Cooperation: Explaining Multilateral Economic Sanctions (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992).

Miyagawa. Makio. Do Economic Sanctions Work? (New York.: St. Martin’s Press, 1992).

Moorsom, Richard. The Scope for Sanctions: Economic Measures Against South Africa (London: Catholic Institute for International Relations, 1986).

Nincic, Miroslav and Wallensteen, Peter. Dilemmas of Economic Coercion: Sanctions in World Politics (New York: Praeger, 1983).

Potter, Pitman Benjamin. Sanctions and Security: An Analysis of the French and American Views (Geneva: Geneva Research Center, 1932).

Preeg, Ernest H. Doing Good or Feeling Good with Sanctions: Unilateral Economic Sanctions and the US National Interest (Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1999).

Reisersen, Tormod. Macroeconomic Impacts of the Sanctions Against South Africa. NUPI no. 548 (Oslo: Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, 1996).

Renwick, Robin. Economic Sanctions (Cambridge: Harvard University Center for International Affairs, 1981).

Simons, Geoff. Imposing Economic Sanctions: Legal Remedy or Genocidal Tool? (London: Pluto, 1999).

Ströberg, Karin. Prospects for Success in International Interventions: The Examples of Economic sanctions and Peace Enforcement (Stockholm: Defence Research Establishment (FOA), 2000).

Taubenfeld, H.J. Economic Sanctions: An Appraisal and Case Study (New York: Colombia University, 1958).

Wallensteen, Peter. A Century of Economic Sanctions: A Field Revisited. Uppsala Research Paper, no. 1 (Uppsala: Department of Peace and Conflict Research, 2000).

Weiss, Thomas G., Cortright, David, Lopez, A. Lopez, George, and Minear, Larry (eds.). Political Gain and Civilian Pain: Humanitarian Impacts of Economic Sanctions (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997).

International Law

Brown-John, C. Lloyd. Multilateral Sanctions in International Law: a Comparative Analysis (New York: Praeger, 1975).

Gowlland-Debbas, Vera (ed.). United Nations Sanctions and International Law. The Graduate Institute of International Studies, Vol. 1 (Kluwer Law International: The Hague, 2001).

--. Collective Responses to Illegal Acts in International Law: United Nations Action in the Question of Southern Rhodesia. Legal Aspects of International Organization, no. 11 (Dordrecht: Nijhoff, 1990).

Highley, Albert E. The First Sanctions Experiment: a Study of League Procedures. (Geneva: Geneva studies 1938).

Krasno, Jean, Hayes, Bradd C., and Donald C.F Daniel (eds.). Leveraging for Sucess in United Nations Peace Operations (Westport: Praeger, 2003).

Scott, James Brown. The Spanish Conception of International Law and of Sanctions. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Division of International Law. Pamphlet Series; 54 (Washington, 1934).

Specific Studies on Particular Cases

Angola

Fowler, Robert. Report by Robert Fowler, Chair, Committee on Sanctions Against UNITA. S/1999/644 (New York: United Nations, 1999).

--. Second Report by Robert Fowler, Char, Committee on Sanctions Against UNITA. S/1999/829 (New York: United Nations, 1999)

Burundi

Hoskins, Eric. Humanitarian Impacts of Economic Sanctions on Burundi. Paper, no. 29 (Providence: Thomas J. Watson Institute for International Studies, 1997).

Cuba

Kaplowitz, Donna Rich. Anatomy of a Failed Embargo: U.S. Sanctions Against Cuba (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1998).

Schwab, Peter. Cuba: Confronting the U.S. Embargo (New York: St.: Martin’s Press, 1999).

Vászques Díaz, René (ed.). Health and Nutrition in Cuba: Effects of the U.S. Embargo. Report from a seminar held in Miami, Florida, USA in September 1997 (Stockholm: Olof Palme International Centre, 1998).

European Union

Bethlehem, D. "Regional Interface between Security Council Decisions and Member States Implementation: The Example of the European Union", in (ed. Gowlland-Debbas V) United Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studied (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Hazelzet, Hadewych. Carrots or Sticks? EU and US Reactions to Human Rights Violations (1989-2000) (European University Institute: Department of Social and Political Science Florence, 2001)

Haiti

Gibbons, Elisabeth D. Sanctions in Haiti: Human Rights and Democracy under Assault (Washington: the Centre for Strategic and International Studies Press, 1999).

--. Sanctions in Haiti: Human Rights and Democracy under Assault. Center for Strategic and International Studies (Westport: Praeger, 1990).

Iraq

Alnasrawi, Abbas. Iraq's burdens: Oil, Sanctions, and Underdevelopment (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002).

Arnove, Anthony (ed.). Iraq Under Siege: the Deadly Impact of Sanctions and War (London: Pluto, 2000).

Bethlehem, Daniel (ed.). The Kuwait Crisis: Sanctions and their Economic Consequences (Cambridge: Grotius, 1991).

Clark, Ramsey. The Children Are Dying: the Impact of Sanctions on Iraq. Reports by Food and Agriculture Organization (New York: International Action Center, 1998).

Conlon, Paul. United Nations Sanctions Management: A Case Study of the Iraq Sanctions Committee, 1990-1994 (Ardsley: Transnational Publishers, 2000).

Cordesman, Anthony H. Iraq and the War of Sanctions: Conventional Threats and Weapons of Mass Destruction (Westport: Praeger, 1999).

--. Iraq: Sanctions and Beyond (Boulder: Westview Press, 1997).

Cortright, David and Millar, Alistar, and Lopez, George. Sanctions, Inspections and Containment – Viable Policy Options in Iraq. Policy Brief vol. 3 . Fourth Freedom Forum and the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 2002).

--. and Lopez, George A. (eds.). Toward Smart Sanctions on Iraq, Kroc Institute of International Peace Studies. Policy Brief vol. 5, (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 2001).

Fukuda, Sakashi (red.). Politics, Economy and Sanctions in the Persian Gulf States in a Changing Environment (Wakaba: Institute of Developing Economies, 2001).

Garfield, Richard. Morbidity and Mortality Among Iraq Children from 1990 to 1998: Assessing the Impact of Economic Sanctions. Occasional Paper Series, 16, no. 3. Paper Commissioned by the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame and the Fourth Freedom Forum, (Notre Dame: Univeristy of Notre Dame, 1999).

Graham-Brown, Sarah. Sanctioning Saddam: the Politics of Intervention in Iraq (London: Tauris, MERIP, 1999).

Harkin, Tom. Weapons of Mass Destruction: U.N. Confronts Significant Challenges in Implementing Sanctions Against Iraq: Report to the Honorable Tom Karkin, U.S. Senate (Washington: United States Accounting Office, 2002).

Johnstone, Ian. Aftermath of the Gulf War: An Assessment of UN Action. International Peace Academy (Boulder: Rienner, 1994).

Lopez George, and Cortright, David. Toward Smart Sanctions on Iraq, Kroc Institute Policy Brief, no. 5, Policy Brief, no. 5, Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, 2000).

Niblock, Tim. “Pariah States” & Sanctions in the Middle East: Iraq, Libya, Sudan (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001).

Simons, Geoff. Targeting Iraq: Sanctions and Bombing in US Policy (London: Saqi Books, 2002).

Simons, Geoff. The Scouring of Iraq: Sanctions, Law and Natural Justice (New York: St.: Martin’s Press, 1998).

Italy

Ristuccia, Christiano Andrea. 1935 Sanctions Against Italy: Would Coal and Crude Oil Have Made a Difference? (Oxford: University of Oxford, 1997).

Nigeria

Cortright, David and George Lopez. ’Smart’ Sanctions on Nigeria, Occasional Paper, no. 10, Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 1996).

Lewis, Peter Michael. Stabilizing Nigeria: Sanctions, Incentives and Support for Civil Society (New York: Century Foundation Press, 1998).

Libya

Rose, Gideon. “Libya”. in Richard Hass (ed.). Economic Sanctions and American Diplomacy, (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1998).

Rhodesia

Copson, Raymond W. Executive-legislative Consultation on Foreign Policy: Sanctions Against Rhodesia. U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Foreign Affairs. September 1982 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1982).

Kapung, Leonard T. The United Nations and Economic Sanctions Against Rhodesia (Lexington: Lexington Books, 1971).

Mezerik, A.G. (ed). Rhodesia and the United Nations: UN Imposition of Mandatory Sanctions 1966. Sanctions, Actions and Reactions (UK, US, Portugal, South Africa). UN Activities (General Assembly, Security Council, Special Committee). Political and Economic Developments in Rhodesia (New York: International Review Service).

Strack, Harry R. Sanctions: the Case of Rhodesia (Syracuse: University Press, 1978).

Sutcliffe, Robert B. Sanctions Against Rhodesia: the Economic Background (London: Africa Bureau, 1966).

South Africa

Becker, Charles. M. and Hofmeyr. The Impact of Sanctions on South Africa (Washington: Investor Responsibility Research Center, 1990).

Clarke, Simon. Economic Sanctions Against South Africa: Financial Aspects of Economic Sanctions on South Africa (Geneva: International university exchange fund, 1980).

Crawford, Neta C., and Klotz Audie (eds.). How Sanctions Work: Lessons from South Africa (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999).

Geldenhuys, Deon (ed.). Sanctions Against South Africa (Johannesburg: South African Institute of International Affairs, 1979).

Green, Reginal Herbold. South Africa: the Impact of Sanctions on Southern African Economies (Geneva: International University Exchange Fund, 1980).

Hanlon, Joseph. South Africa: the Sanctions Report: Documents & Statistics- a Report from the Independent Expert Study Group on the Evaluation of the Application and Impact of Sanctions Against South Africa Prepared for the Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on Southern Africa (London: Commonwealth Secretariat, 1990).

--. SADCC and Sanctions (Brussels: International coalition for development action, 1989).

Hermele, Kenneth and Odén Bertil. Sanctions Dilemmas: Some Implications of Economic Sanctions against South Africa (Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1998).

Kalley, Jaqueline Audrey. Pressure on Pretoria: Sanctions, Boycotts and the Divestement/Disinvestments Issue, 1964-1988: A Select and Annotated Bibliography. South African Institute of International Affairs, no. 17 (Braamfontein: South African Institute of International Affairs, 1988).

Khan, Haider Ali. The Political Economy of Sanctions Against Apartheid (London: Lynne Rienner, 1989).

Koenderman, Tony. Sanctions, Threat to South Africa (Johannesburg: J. Ball, 1992).

Kuyper, Pieter Jan. The Implementation of International Sanctions. The Netherlands and Rhodesia (The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Inst. 1978).

Lipton, Merle: Sanctions and South Africa: The Dynamics of Economic Isolation. Special Report, no. 1119 (London: The Economist Intelligence Unit, 1988).

Lundahl, Mats. Will Economic Sanctions End Apartheid in South Africa?: What Simple Analytical Models Can Tell Us?. Department of International Economics & Geography, Stockholm School of Economics, no. 47 (Stockholm: Handelshögskolan, 1991).

Mezerik, A.G. Apartheid in the Republic of South Africa: Bantustans, boycotts, UN action, Rhodesia, South West Africa (NY: International Review of Science, 1967).

Orkin, Mark (ed.). Sanctions Against Apartheid. Community Agency for Social Enquiry (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1990).

Osaka, Masako. Sanctions and Honerary Whites: Diplomatic Policies and Economic Realities in Relations Between Japanand South Africa (Westport: Greenwood Pres, 2002).

Rogers, Barbara and Bolton, Brian. Sanctions Against South Africa: Exploding the Myths (Manchester: Manchester Free Press & the Holland Committee on Southern Africa, 1981).

Rowe, David M. Surviving Economic Coercion: Rhodesia’s Response to International Economic Sanctions. PhD. Dissertation. (Duke University, 1993).

Schoeman, Elna. South African Sanctions Directory, 1946-1988. Actions by Governments, Banks, Churches, Trade Unions, Universities, International and Regional Organizations (Johannesburg: South African Institute of International Affairs, 1988).

Segal, Ronald. Sanctions Against South Africa. International Conference on Economic Sanctions Against South Africa (London: Penguin, 1964).

Shepherd, George W (ed.). Effective Sanctions on South Africa: the Cutting Edge of Economic Intervention (New York: Praeger, 1991).

Spandau, Arnt. Economic Boycott Against South Africa: Normative and Factual Issues (Cape Town: Juta & Co., 1979)

Spicer, Miachael Wolseley. Sanctions Against South Africa: the Changing Context (Braamfontein: South African Institute of International Affairs, 1982).

Venter, Daniel J. South Africa, Sanctions and the Multinationals (Chichester: Carden, 1989).

de Villiers, Les. In Sight of Surrender: The US Sanctions Campaign Against South Africa (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1995).

Yusuff Maitama-Sule, Alhaji. Time for Sanctions Against Apartheid South Africa is Now: Statements. United Nations Centre Against Apartheid (New York: United Nations, 1982).

U.S.

Alexander, S. Kern. Third Country Liability under United States Economic Sanctions: the Extraterritorial Legal Framework. PhD Diss. In Law (London: University of London, 1999).

Ayubi, Shaheen. Economic Sanctions in U.S. Foreign Policy (Philadelphia: Foreign Policy Research Institute, 1982).

Dobson, Alan P. US Economic Statecraft for Survivial, 1933-1991: of Sanctions, Embargoes and Economic Warfare (London: Routledge, 2002).

Lowenfeld, A. "Unilateral Versus Collective Sanctions: An American's Perception", in Untied Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studies (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Rodman, Kenneth A. Sanctions Beyond Border: Multinational Corporations and U.S. Economic Statecraft (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2001).

Selden, Zachary. Economic Sanctions as Instrument of American Foreign Policy (Westport: Praeger, 1999).

Shambaug, George E. States, Firms, and Powers: Successful Sanctions in United States Foreign Policy (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999).

Articles, Chapters and Reviews- Published in Scholarly Journals and Books

International Sanctions in General

Addison,T. and Murshed, SM. "Credibility and Reputationin Peacemaking", in Journal of Peace Research, vol. 39, no. 4, 2002.

Ahmed, Samina, and Cortright, David. “Sanctions: Modify ‘em “, in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, vol. 54, no. 5, 1998.

Amuzegar, J. “Adjusting to Sanctions”, in Foreign Affairs, vol. 76, no. 3, 1997.

Bhutta, Z.A. “Staring Into the Abyss: Walking the Nuclear Tightrope in South Asia – Sanctions Can Only Make Things Worse For the People of India and Pakistan”, in British Medical Journal, vol. 317, no. 7155, 1998.

Baldwin, DA. “Success and Failure in Foreign Policy”, in Annual Review of Political Science, No. 3, 2000.

--. Economic Sanctions as Instruments of Foreign Policy. Paper presented at the International Studies Association (Atlanta: ISA, 1984.

Barrett, S. “A Theory of Full International Cooperation”, in Journal of Theoretical Politics, vol. 11, no. 4, 1999.

Brozka, M. and Doxey, M. ”Smart Sanctions- the Next Steps: the Debate on Arms Embargoes and Travel Sanctions Within the ’Bonn-Berlin process’, International Journal, vol. 57, no. 1, 2002.

Canes, M.E. “Country Impacts of Multilateral Oil Sanctions”, in Contemporary Economic Policy, vol. 18, no. 2, 2000.

Cortright, D. and Lopez, GA. “The Limits of Coercion”, in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist, November/December, 2000.

--. “Powers of Persuasion: Sanctions and Incentives in the Shaping of International Society”, in International Studies, vol. 38, no. 2, 2001.

--. and Lopez, GA. “ ’Smart Sanctions’ ”, in Nation, vol. 268, no. 18, 1999.

Crawford, J. "The Relationship between Sanctions and Countermeasures", in (ed. Gowlland-Debbas V) United Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studied (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Diller, J. "UN Sanctions: The ILO Experience", in (ed. Gowlland-Debbas V.) United Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studies (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Lopez, GA. and Cortright, D. “Smarting Under Sanctions”, in World Today, vol. 58, no. 3, 2002.

--. and Lopez, GA. “More Ethical than Not: Sanctions as Surgical Tools”, in Ethics and International Affairs, vol. 13, 1999.

--. “Modify ‘em’”, in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist, vol. 54, no. 5, 1998.

Crow, P. “Sanctions Issues”, in Oil and Gas, vol. 97, no. 29, 1999.

--. “Sanctions Issues”, in Oil and Gas Journal, vol. 96, no. 46, 1998.

Dorussen, H. and Mo, Jongryn. “Mixing Carrots with Sticks: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Positive Incentives”, in Journal of Peace Research, vol. 38, no. 2. 2001.

Doxey, Margert P. “Sanctions”, in International Journal, vol. 55, no. 4, 2000.

--. “Sanctions Through the Looking Glass – the Spectrum of Goals and Achievements”, in International Journal, vol. 55, no. 2, 2000.

--. and Hampson, Fen Osle. “International Sanctions in Contemporary Perspective”, in International Journal, vol. 54, no. 4, 1997.

Drezner, DW., and Drury, AC. “Bargaining, Enforcement, and Multilateral Sanctions: When is Cooperation Counterproductive?”, in International Organization, vol. 54, no. 1, 2000.

Eizenstat, SE. “Sanctions: Mend ‘em, Don’t End ‘em”, in Foreign Affairs, vol. 78, no. 3, 1999.

Elliot, KA., “The Sanctions Glass”, in International Security, vol. 23, no. 1, 1998.

--. and Hufbauer, GC. “The Sanctions Glass – Half Full or Completely Empty?”, in International Security, vol. 23, no. 1, 1998.

Finck, TG. “Unilateral Sanctions”, in Oil and Gas Journal, vol. 95, no. 11, 1997.

Freedman, RO." "Pariah States" and Sanctions in the Middle East: Iraq, Libya, Sudan", in American Political Science Review, vol. 96, no. 1, 2002.

Garoupa, NR. and Gata, JE. “A Theory of International Conflict Management and Sanctioning”, in Public Choice, vol. 110, no. 1-2, 2002.

Gershenson, D. ”Sanctions and Civil Conflict”, in Economica, vol. 69, no. 274, 2002

Giesecke, J. “Prevention, not Panic- Epidemics and Trade Sanctions”, in Lancet, vol. 356. no. 9229, 2000.

Gordon, J. “Sanctions as Siege Warfare”, in Nation, vol. 268, no. 11, 1999.

--. “ ‘Smart Sanctions’ – Reply”, in Nation, vol, 268, no. 18, 1999.

Graham, Thomas. “Sanctions: Hang Tough”, in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, vol. 54, no. 5, 1998.

Hass, RN., O’Sullivan, ML., and Dunn, DH. “Honey and Vinegar: Incentives, Sanctions and Foreign Policy”, in International Affairs, vol. 77. No. 2, 2001.

--. and O’Sullivan, ML., and Zelikow, P. “Honey and Vinegar: Incentives, Sanctions, and Foreign Policy”, in Foreign Affairs, vol. 79, no. 6, 2000.

Heilbrunn, J. “The Corporate Takeover of Foreign Policy”. The Sanctions Sell Out”, in New Republic, vol. 218, no. 21, 1998.

Kaempfer, WH., and Lowenberg, AD. “Unilateral Versus Multilateral International Sanctions: a Public Choice Perspective”, in International Studies Quarterly, vol. 43, no. 1., 1999.

Khromov, G. “Sanctions: Mend ‘em, Don’t end ‘em”, in Foreign Affairs, vol. 78, no. 3, 1999.

Kuhn, M. "UN sanctions and ICRC's Mandate", in (ed. Gowlland-Debbas V.) United Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studies (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Landgren, K. "UN Sanctions: Dilemmas for UNICEF", in (ed. Gowlland-Debbas V.) United Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studies (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Lopez, GA. and Cortright, D. “More Ehtical Than Not: A Response to Joy Gordon’s Claims Regarding Sanctions”, in Ethics and International Affairs, no. 13, 1999.

Luther, B. “Sanctions: Mend ‘em, Don’t end ‘em”, in Foreign Affairs, vol. 78, no. 3, 1999.

Meilinger, PS. “A Matter of Precision- Why Air Power May be More Humane than Sanctions”, in Foreign Policy, vol. 123, no. 78-79, 2001.

Miers, A.C. And Morgan, TC. "Multilateral Sanctions and Foreign Policy Sucess: Can Too Many Cooks Spoil the Broth?", in International Interaction, vol, 28, no. 2 2002).

Miller, SE. “International Security at Twenty-five- From One World to Another”, in International Security, vol. 26, no. 1, 2001.

Mueller, J., and Mueller, K. ”The Methodology of Mass Destruction: Threats in the New World Order”, Journal of Strategic Studies, vol. 23, no. 1, 2000.

--.”Sanctions of Mass Destruction”, in Foreign Affairs, vol. 78, no. 3, 1999.

Nossal, Kim Richard. “Liberal Democratic Regimes, International Sanctions and Global Governance”, in Väyrynen, Raimo (ed.). Globalization and Global Governance (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999).

--. “International Sanctions as International Punishment”, in International Organization, vol. 43, no. 2, 1989.

Nourddin, I. "Modeling Selection Bias in Studies of Sanctions Efficacy", in International Interactions vol. 28, no. 1, 2002.

Rodman, Kenneth A. ”Think Globaly, Punish Localy”. Non State Actors, Multinational Corporations and Human Rights Sanctions. Ethics and International Affairs, vol. 12, 1998.

Scanlan, AF. “Assessing the Potential for Long Term Security of Oil Supplies With Special Reference to North Africa, With Special Reference to UN sanctions, in Energy Exploration and Exploitation, vol. 15, no. 3, 1997.

--. Shearer, D. “Sanctions Straitjacket”, in World Today, vol. 56, no. 5, 2000.

Sidel, VW. “Can Sanctions be Sanctioned?”, in American Journal of Public Health, vol. 89, no. 10, 1999.

Tenbrunsel, AE. and Messic, DM. “Sanctioning Systems, Decision Frames, and Cooperation”, in Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 44, no. 4, 1999.

Tomasevski, K., and de Waal, A. “Between Sanctions and Elections: Aid Donors and Their Human Rights Performance”, in International Affairs, vol. 74, no. 2, 1998.

Torstensen, A and Bull, B. "Are Smart Sanctions Feasible?", in World Politics, vol. 54, April 2002.

Valentino, B. “Final Solutions: the Causes of Mass Killing and Genocide”, in Security Studies, vol. 9, no. 3, 2000.

Weiss, TG. “Sanctions as a Foreign Policy Tool: Weighing Humanitarian Impulses”, in Journal of Peace Research, vol. 36, no. 5, 1999.

Winkler, A. “Just Sanctions”, in Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 21, no. 1, 1999.

United Nations Sanctions and League of Nations

Al-Anbari, AA. "The Impact of United Nations Sanctions on Economic Development, Human Rights and Civil Society", in (ed. Gowlland-Debbas V.) United Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studies (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

von Braunmühl, Claudia, and Kulessa, Manfred. The Impact of UN Sanctions on Humanitarian Assistance Activities - A Report on a Study Commissioned by the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs (Berlin: Gesellschaft für Communication Management Interkultur Training, 1995).

Burci, G.L. "Interpreting the Humanitarian Exceptions through the Sanctions Committees", in (ed. Gowlland-Debbas V) United Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studied (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Conlon, Paul. “The UN’s Questionable Sanctions Practice”, in Aussenpolitik, vol. 46, no. 4, 1995.

Cortright, D. and Lopez GA., and Harpviken, KB. “The Sanctions Decade: Assessing UN Strategies in the 1990s”, in Journal of Peace Research, vol. 38, no. 5, 2001.

--. and Lopez, GA. “Learning from the Sanctions Decade”, Global Dialogue, vol. 2, no. 3, 2000.

--. “The Sanctions Decade: Assessing UN Strategies in the 1990s”, in International Affairs, vol. 76, no. 4, 2000.

--. and O’Sullivan, ML. “The Sanctions Decade”, in Survival, vol. 42, no. 4, 2000

--. and Lopez, GA, and Urquhart, B. “The Sanctions Decade: Assessing UN strategies in the 1990s”, in New York Review of Books, vol. 47, no. 14, 2000.

Domestici-Met, MJ. "Can Sanctions Contravene Norms Concerning the United Nations System itelf?", in (ed. Gowlland-Debbas V.) United Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studies (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Mack, A. and Khan, A. “The Efficacy of UN Sanctions”, in Security Dialogue, vol. 31, no. 3, 2000.

International Economic Sanction

Albright, MK. “Economic Sanctions and Public Health: a View From the Department of State”, in Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 132, no. 2, 2000.

Baldwin, DA. “The Sanctions Debate and the Logic Choice”, in International Security, vol. 24, no. 3, 1999.

--. and Pope, RA. “Evaluating Economic Sanctions”, in International Security, vol. 23, no. 2, 1998.

Barrett, S. “The Strategy of Trade Sanctions” in International Environmental Agreements”, in Resource and Energy Economics, vol. 19, no. 4, 1997.

Barry, M. “Economic Sanctions and Embargoes”, in Annals of International Medicine, vol. 133, no. 4, 2000.

Blanchard, JMF., and Ripsman, NM. “Asking the Right Question: When do Economic Sanctions Work Best?”, in Security Studies, vol. 9, no. 1-2, 1999.

Bolks, SM. And Al-Sowayel, D. “How Long do Economic Sanctions Last? Examining the Sanctions Process Through Duration”, in Political Research Quarterly, vol. 53, no. 2, 2000.

Brumage, M. “Economic Sanctions and Embargoes”, in Annals of International Medicine, vol. 133, no. 4, 2000.

Chinkin, C."Alternatives to Economic Sanctions", in (ed. Gowlland-Debbas V.) United Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studies (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Cortright, David and Lopez, George A. “Sanctions and Incentives as Tools of Economic Statecraft”, in Väyrynen, Raimo (ed.). Globalization and Global Governance (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999).

--. and Lopez. “Carrots, Sticks and Cooperation: Economic Tools of Statecraft”, in Rubin, Barnett R. (ed.), Cases and Strategies for Preventive Action. Preventive Action Reports, vol. 2, (New York: The Century Foundation Press, 1998).

Chan, S. and Drury. AC., and Nossal KR. Sanctions as Economic Statecraft: Theory and Practice, in American Political Science Review, vol. 96, no. 1, 2002.

--. Cortright, D. and Lopez, GA. “Economic Sanctions and Human Rights: Part of the Problem, or Part of the Solution?”, in International Journal of Human Rights, vol. 1, no. 2, 1997.

Daponte, BO., and Garfield, R. “The Effect of Economic Sanctions on the Mortality of Iraqi Children Prior to the 1991 Persian Gulf War”, in American Journal of Public Health, vol. 90, no. 4, 2000.

Dashti Gibson, J., Davis, P., and Radcliff, B. “On the Determinants of the Successes of Economic Sanctions: an Empirical Analysis”, in American Journal of Political Science, vol. 41, no. 2, 1997.

Delevic, Milica. “Economic Sanctions as a Foreign Policy Tool: the Case of Yugoslavia”, in International Journal of Peace Studies, vol. 3, no. 1, 1998.

Drezner, DW., and Drury, AC. “The Sanctions Paradox. Economic Statecraft and International Relations”, in Journal of Politics, vol. 63, no. 2, 2001.

--. and Elliot, KA. “The Sanctions Paradox: Economic Statecraft and International Relations”, in Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 39. No. 1, 2001.

--. “Outside the Box: Explaining Sanctions in Pursuit of Foreign Economic Goals”, in International Interactions, vol. 26, no. 4, 2001.

--. “The Sanctions Paradox: Economic Statecraft and International Relations”, in International Affairs, vol. 76, no. 4, 2000.

--. and Morgan, TC. “The Sanctions Paradox: Economic Statecraft and International Relations”, in American Political Science Review. vol. 94, no. 3, 2000.

--. “The Trouble with Carrots: Transaction Costs, Conflict Expectations, and Economic Inducements”, in Security Studies, vol. 9, no. 1-2, 1999.

--. and Giebels, E. “The Sanctions Paradox: Economic Statecraft and International Relations”, in International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 10, no. 4, 1999.

--. and Wiliams, D. “The Sanctions Paradox – Economic Statecraft and International Relations”, in The Times Literary Supplement, no. 5039, 1999.

Dorussen, H. and Mo, Jongryn. “Ending Economic Sanctions - Audience Costs and Rent- Seeking as Commitment Strategies”, in Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 45, no. 4, 2001.

Drury, AC. “Sanctions as Coercive Diplomacy: the US President’s Decision to Initiate Economic Sanctions”, in Political Research Quarterly, vol. 54, no. 3, 2001.

--. “Revisiting Economic Sanctions Reconsidered”, in Journal of Peace Research, vol. 35, no. 4, 1998

Elliot, KA., and Hufbauer, GC. ”Same Song, Same Refrain? Economic Sanctions in the 1990’s”, in American Economic Review, vol. 89, no. 2, 1999.

Evenett, SJ "The Impact of economic sanctions on South African exports", in Scottish Journal of Political Economy vol. 49, no. 5, 2002

Farmer, RD. “Costs of Economic Sanctions to the Sender”, in World Economy, vol. 23, no. 1, 2000.

Freeland, K. “Economic Sanctions and Embargoes”, in Annals of International Medicine, vol. 133, no. 4, 2000.

Ganson-Myshkin, N. “Economic Sanctions and Embargoes”, in Annals of International Medicine, vol. 133, no. 4, 2000.
Gershenson, D. "Sanctions and civil conflict, in Economica, vol. 69 no. 274, 2002

Gordon, Joy. “A Peaceful, Silent, Deadly Remedy: the Ethics of Economic Sanctions”, in Ethics and International Affairs, vol.13, 1999.

Garfield, R. “Economic Sanctions and Embargoes”, in Annals of International Medicine, vol. 133, no. 4, 2000.

Hart, RA. “Democracy and the Successful Use of Economic Sanctions”, in Political Research Quarterly, vol. 53, no. 2, 2000.

Hickey, DP. “ Economic Sanctions and Embargoes”, in Annals of International Medicine, vol. 133, no. 4, 2000.

Hovi, J. “Why Economic Sanctions Work- After All”, in Internasjonal Politik, vol. 59, no. 4, 2001.

Kirkpatric, AF. “Economic Sanctions and Embargoes”, in Annals of International Medicine, vol. 133, no. 4, 2000.

Kirshner, J. “The Microfoundations of Economic Sanctions”, in Security Studies, vol. 6, no. 3, 1997.

Lektzian, D. and Souva, M. “Institutions and International Cooperation – An Event History Analysis of the Effects of Economic Sanctions”, in Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 45, no. 1, 2001.

Lopez George, and Cortright, David. “Economic Sanctions and Genocide: Too Little, Too Late, and Sometimes Too Much”, in Protection Against Genocide, Riemer, Neal (ed.). Protection Against Genocide (Westport: Praeger Press, 2000).

--. and Cortright, D. “Carrots, Sticks and Cooperation: Economic Tools of Statecraft”, in Causes and Strategies for Preventive Action (New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1997).

--. Financial Sanctions: the Key to a ‘Smart Sanctions Strategy’”, in Die Friedens-Warte, vol. 22, no. 4, 1997.

Lowenfeld, AF. "Sanctions beyond Borders: Multinational Corporations and US Economic Statecraft", in American Journal of International Law vol. 96, no. 3, 2002.

Marks, SP. “Economic Sanctions as Human Rights Violations: Reconciling Political and Public Health Imperatives”, American Journal of Public Health, vol. 89, no. 10, 1999.

Mastanduno, M. “Economic Statecraft, Interdependence, and National Security: Agendas for Research”, in Security Studies, vol. 9, no. 1-2, 1999.

McGee, RW. “Trade Embargoes, Sanctions and Blockades – Some Overlooked Human Rights Issues”, in Journal of World Trade, vol. 32, no. 4, 1998.

Miljkovic, D. "Economic Sanctions as the Propositional Satsifiability Problem", in Policy Science, vol. 35, no. 1, 2002.

Morgan, TC., and Schwebach, VL. “Fools Suffer Gladly: the Use of Economic Sanctions in International Crisis”, in International Studies Quarterly, vol. 41, no. 1, 1997.

Morsy, SA. “Economic Sanctions and Embargoes”, in Annals of International Medicine, vol. 133, no. 4, 2000.

Newnham, RE. “More Flies with Honey: Positive Economic Linkage in German Ostpolitik from Bismarck to Kohl”, in International Studies Quarterly, vol. 44, no. 1, 2000.

Pape, RA. “Why Economic Sanctions Still do not Work”, in International Security, vol. 23, no. 1, 1998.

--. “Why Economic Sanctions Still do Not Work”, International Security, vol. 23, no. 1, 1998

--. “Evaluating Economic Sanctions”, International Security, vol. 23, no. 2, 1998.

--. “Evaluating Economic Sanctions - the Author Replies”, in International Security, vol. 23, no. 2, 1998.

--. “Why Economic Sanctions do Not Work”, International Security, vol. 22, no. 2, 1997.

Preeg, EH., and Bierling, S. “Feeling Good or Doing Good With Sanctions. Unilateral Economic Sanctions and the US National Interest”, in Internationale Politik, vol. 55, no. 2, 2000.

Qudraat, CD. “Making Economic Sanctions Work”, in Survival, vol. 42, no. 3, 2000.

Reinisch A. “Developing Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Accountability of the Security Council for the Imposition of Economic Sanctions”, in American Journal of International Law, vol. 95, no. 4, 2001.

Richards, L. “ Economic Sanctions and Embargoes”, in Annals of International Medicine, vol. 133, no. 4, 2000.

Ripsman, NM. "The Challenge of Targeting Economic Sanctions", in International Journal, vol. 57, no. 4, 2002.

Rowe, DM. “Economic Sanctions do Work: Economic Statecraft and the Oil Embargo of Rhodiesia” in Security Studies, vol. 9, no. 1-2, 1999

Rubin, AP. “Developing Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Accountability of the Security Council for the Imposition of Economic Sanctions”, and the “Reply” by Vagt in the Same Issue of the American Journal of International Law, vol. 95, no. 4, 2002.

Simons, G., and Carriere, MH. Imposing Economic Sanctions: Legal Remedy or Genocidal Tool?”, in International Affairs, vol. 76, no. 4, 2000.

Wadhva, CD. “Costs of Economic Sanctions Aftermath of Pokhran II”, in Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 33, no. 26, 1998.

Wallensteen, Peter. “Characteristics of Economic Sanctions”, Journal of Peace Research, vol. 5, no. 3, 1968.

Weeramanthri, TS., Gruen RL., Bailie, RS., and Moore RL. “Economic Sanctions and Public Health- the Case of Cuba” in Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 174, no. 6, 2001.

Weiss, TG. and. Cortright, D., Lopez, GA., Minear, L. “Political Pain and Civilian gain – Humanitarian Impacts of Economic Sanctions”, in International Journal, vol. 53, no. 3, 1998.

Zhu, XH. “Diminishing Returns From Unilateral Trade Sanctions”, in Economic and Political Weekly, vol 32, no. 1-2, 1997.

International Law

Abi-Saab, G. "The Concept of Sanctions in International Law", in (ed. Gowlland-Debbas, V). United Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studies (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Brown, BS. "US Sanctions in International Law", in American Journal of International Law, vol. 96, no. 2, 2002.

Busby, JB. “Jurisdiction to Limit Third-country Interaction with Sanctioned States: the Iran and Libya Sanctions and Helms Burton Acts”, in Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, vol. 36, no. 3, 1998.

Canor, I. “ “Can Two Walk Together, Except they be Agreed?” The Relationship Between International Law and European Law: The Incorporation of United Nations Sanctions Against Yugoslavia into the European Community Law Through the Perspective of the European Court”, in Common Market Law Review, vol. 35, no. 1 1998

Clapham, A. "Sanction and economic, Social and Cultural Rights", in (ed. Gowlland-Debbas V.) United Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studies (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Cleveland, SH. "Human Rights sanctions and international trade: a theory of compatibility", in Journal of Economic Law, vol 5 no 1.

Condorelli, L. "Comparability of Security Council Sanctions with Humanitarian International Law", in (ed. Gowlland-Debbas V.) United Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studies, (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Dugard, J. "Judicial Review of Sanctions", in (ed. Gowlland-Debbas V.) United Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studies, (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Frowein, JA. and Gowland Debbas, V. "Opening Remarks: Sanctions and Human Rights Law", in (ed. Gowlland-Debbas V.) United Nations Sanctions and Internatioal Law, Graduate Institute of International Studies (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Momtaz, D. "Comparability of Security Council Sanctions with Humanitarian International Law", in (ed. Gowlland-Debbas V.) United Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studies (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Reinisch, A. "Developing Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Accountability of the Secuirty Council for the Imposition of Economic Sanctions: Reply", in American Journal of International Law, vol. 95, no. 4, 2001.

Rubin, AP. "Developing Human Rigths and Humanitarian Law Accountability of the Security Council for the Imposition of Economic Sanctions", in American Journal of International Law, vol. 95, no. 4, 2001.

Sassoli, M. "Sanctions and International Humanitarian Law- Commentry", in Untied Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studies (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Sponeck, Hans von. ”The impact on International Law of a Decade of Measures Against Iraq”, in the European Journal of International Law (Oxford University Press, vol. 13. no. 1, 2002).

Vagts.-. "Developing Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Accountability of the Secuirty Council for the Imposition of Economic Sanctions: Reply", in American Journal of International Law, vol. 95, no. 4, 2001.

Specific Studies on Particular Cases

Afghanistan

Ahmad, K. “UN Sanctions Imposed Against Afghanistan While Thousands Flee”, in Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9251, 2001.

--. “Aid Organisation Rebuke UN for Afghanistan Sanctions”, in Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9249.

--. “UN Report Highlights Health Effects of Sanctions on Afghanistan”, in Lancet, vol. 356, no. 9235, 2000.

--. “UN Sanctions on Afghanistan Prompt Widespread Concern”, in Lancet, vol. 354, no. 9189, 1999.

--. “Despair as Sanctions Against Afghanistan Start”, in Lancet, vol. 354, no. 9193, 1999.

--. “UN Sanctions on Afghanistan Prompt Widespread Concern”, in Lancet, vol. 354, no. 9189, 1999.

Africa

Huaraka, T. "Implementation of Sanctions- The Experience of Africa", in (ed. Gowlland- Debbas V) United Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studied (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Austria

Beller, S. Jorg Haider, Austria and EU Sanctions (Response to Robert S. Wistrich)”, in The Times Literary Supplement, no. 5059, 2000.

Jelinek, E. “Artists and Intellectuals in Austria, One Year After the Sanctions of the European Union”, in Europe-Revue Litteraire Mensuelle, vol. 79, no. 866-67, 2001.

Wangermann, E. “Jorg Haider, Austria and EU Sanctions (response to Robert S. Wistrich)”, in The Times Literary Supplement, no. 5059, 2000.

Wistrich, R. Jorg Haider, Austria and EU Sanctions, in Times Literary Supplement, no. 5061 2000.

Cuba

Barry, M. “Effect of the US Embargo and Economic Decline on Health in Cuba”, in Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 132, no. 2, 2000.

Ciment, J. “US Eases Sanctions on Cuba”, in British Medical Journal, vol. 316, no. 7138, 1998.

Kaplowitz, DR., and Nuccio, RA. “Anatomy of a Failed Embargo: US Sanctions Against Cuba”, in Journal of Latin American Studies, vol. 31, no. 783-785, 1999.

--. and Zimbalist, A. “Anatomy of a Failed Embargo: US Sanctions Against Cuba”, in International History Review, vol. 21, no. 3, 1999.

--. and Domingues, JI. “Anatomy of a Failed Embargo: US Sanctions Against Cuba”, in Political Science Quarterly, vol. 114, no. 2, 1999.

--. and Santana, Z. “Anatomy of a Failed Embargo: US Sanctions Against Cuba”, in Millenium-Journal of International Studies, vol. 28. no. 1, 1999.

--. and Vanden, HE. “Anatomy of a Failed Embargo: US Sanctions Against Cuba”, in Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, vol. 41, no. 1, 1999.

Salvesen, H. “The United States and Cuba-From Confrontation to Cooperation?”, in Internasjonal Politikk, vol. 58, no. 3, 2000.

E.U.

Anthony, Ian. “Sanctions Applied by the European Union and the United States”, in SIPRI Yearbook – Armaments, Disarmaments and International Security (Stockholm: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 2002).

Koutrakos, P. and Neuwahl N. “Trade, Foreign Policy & Defence in EU Constitutional Lawthe Legal Regulation of Sanctions”, in Common Market Law Review, vol. 39, no. 2, 2002.

Merlingen. M, Mudde, C. And Sedelmeier, U. “The Right and the Righteous? European Norms, Domestic Politics and the Sanctions Against Austria”, in Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 39, no. 1, 2001.

Neuwahl, N. "Trade, Foreign Policy and Defence in EU Constitutional Law- The legal Regulation of Sanctions", in Common Market Law Review, vol. 39, no. 2, 2002.

Scott, A. "EU Mulls Criminal Sanctions for Eco-Crimes", in Chemical Weekly, vol. 164, no. 16, 2002.

Gambia

Sain, A. “The Gambia’s Foreign Policy Since the Coup, 1994-99”, in Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, vol. 38. no. 2, 2000.

Haiti

Farmer, P. Fawazi, and Nevil. P. "Unjust Embargo of Aid for Haiti, in Lancet, vol 361, no. 1, 2003.

Gibbons, E., and Garfield, R. “The impact of Economic Sanctions on Health and Human Rights in Haiti”, in American Journal of Public Health, vol. 90, no. 1, 2000.

India

Crow, P. “Sanctions on India”, in Oil and Gas Journal, vol. 96, no. 21, 1998.

Kumar, S. “India to Raise Health Spending to Counteract Foreign Aid Sanctions”, in Lancet, vol. 351, no. 9118, 1998.

Lepkowski, W. “Sanctions hit US-India Science Relations”, in Chemical and Engineering news, vol. 76, no. 25, vol. 1998.

Iran

Amuzegar, J. “Iran’s Economy and the US Sanctions”, in Middle East Journal, vol. 51, no. 2, 1997.

Bahgat, G. “US-Iran Relations: Sanctions and the Caspian Sea”, in Security Dialogue, vol. 32, no. 2, 2001.

Breckinridge, C. “Sanction First, ask Questions Later: the Short Sighted Treatment of Iran under the Iran and Libya Sanctions Act of 1996”, in Georgetown Law Journal, no. 88, vol. 8, 2000.

Roshandel, J. "Sanctioning Iran: Anatomy of a failed Policy", in Internatioal Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 34, no. 1, 2002.

Iraq

Ali, HM., and Shah, IH. “Sanctions and Childhood Mortality in Iraq”, in Lancet, vol. 355, no. 9218, 2000.

Alnasrawi, A. “Iraq: Economic Sanctions and Consequences, 1990-2000”, in Third World Quarterly, vol. 22, no. 2, 2001.

Arnove, A. “Killing Sanctions in Iraq”, in Nation, vol. 274, no. 2, 2002.

--. and Rai, M. “Iraq under Siege: the Deadly impact of Sanctions and War”, in Race and Class, vol. 42, no. 3, 2001.

Arya, N. And Zurbrigg, S. "Operation Infinite Justice: Impact of Sanctions and Prospective War on the People of Iraq", in Canadian Journal of Publich Helath, vol. 94, no. 1, 2003.

Baram, A. “The Effect of Iraqi Sanctions: Statistical Pitfalls and Responsibility”, in Middle East Journal, vol. 54, no. 2, 2000.

Bloomfield, A. “UN Sanctions and Health in Iraq”, in New Zealand Medical Journal, vol. 111, no. 1069, 1998.

Brown, BS. "United Nations sanctions management: a case study of the Iraq Sanctions Comittee, 1990-1994", in American Journal of International Law, vol. 96, no. 2, 2002.

Buck, L. Gallant, N., and Nossal, KR. “Sanctions as a Gendered Instrument of Statecraft: the Case of Iraq”, in Review of International Studies, vol. 24, no. 1, 1998.

Byman, D. “A Farewell to Arms Inspections”, in Foreign Affairs, vol. 79, no. 1, 2000.

Clairmont, FF. “ “Iraq: Logic of Exterminism”, in Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 33, no. 14, 1998

Clairmont, FF. and Lopez, GA “Trouble in the Gulf: Pain and Promise”, in The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, vol. 54, no. 3, 1998.

Cordesman AH., and Yaphe, JS. “Iraq and the War of Sanctions: Conventional Threats and Weapons of Mass Destruction”, in International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 32, no. 4, 2000.

--. and Ignatieff, M. “Iraq and the War of Sanctions: Conventional Threats and Weapons of Mass Destruction”, in New York Review of Books, vol. 47, no. 12, 2000.

--. and Hashim, AS., and Crystal, J. “Iraq: Sanctions and Beyond”, in Middle East Journal, vol. 52, no. 2, 1998.

--., Hashim, AS., and Gross, WP. “Iraq: Sanctions and Beyond”, in Middle East Policy, vol. 5, no. 2, 1997.

Cortright, D. “Killing Sanctions in Iraq- Cortright Replies”, in Nation, vol. 274, no. 2, 2002.

--. “A Hard Look at Iraq Sanctions- Deaths Rates are Alarming but Lower than Claimed. Saddam shares responsibility”, in Nation, vol. 273, no. 18, 2001.

--. and Lopez, GA. “Are Sanctions Just? The Problematic Case of Iraq”, in Journal of International Affairs, vol. 52, no. 2, 1999.

Dobson, R. “Sanctions Against Iraq ”Double” Child Mortality”, in British Medical Journal, vol. 321, no. 7275, 2000.

Dupraz, J. "UNICEF and the Sanctions Committee-Lessons Learned from Iraq", in (ed. Gowlland-Debbas V.) United Nations Sanctions and International Law. Graduate Institute of International Studies (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001).

Eastman-Abaya, R. “Life After Sanctions: the Fate of Iraq”, in Lancet, vol. 356, no. 9230, 2000.

Garfield, R. Studies on Young Child Malnutrition in Iraq: Problems and Insight”, 1990-1999”, in Nutrition Reviews, vol. 58. No. 9, 2000.

--. and Leu, CS. “A multivariate Method for Estimating Mortality Rates Among Children Under 5 Years from Health and Social Indicators in Iraq”, in International Journal of Epidemiology, vol, 29, no. 3, 2000.

--. Zaidi, S, and Lennock, J. “Medical Care in Iraq After Six Years of Sanctions”, in British Medical Journal, vol. 315, no. 7120, 1997.

Gause, FG. “Getting it Back on Iraq”, in Foreign Affairs, vol. 78, no. 3, 1999.

Halliday, DJ. “The Impact of the UN Sanctions on the People of Iraq”, in Journal of Palestine Studies, vol. 28, no. 2, 1999.

Herring, E. “Between Iraq and a Hard Place: Critique of the British Government’s Case for UN Economic Sanctions”, in Review of International Studies, vol. 28, no. 1, 2002.

Joffe, G. “Lifting Sanctions Against Iraq – Impact on the Arab World and the West”, in Internationale Politik, vol. 52, no. 3, 1997.

Kandela, P. “Iraq Measures the Health Effects of Sanctions”, in Lancet, vol. 349, no. 9069, 1997.

--. “Baghdad – Effects of Sanctions on Iraq’s Health Professionals”, in the Lancet, vol. 349, no. 9059, 1997.

Khaduri, W. “UN Sanctions on Iraq: 10 Years Later”, in Middle East Policy, vol. 7, no. 4, 2000.

Knott, D. “Iraq Building E and D Project List for Post-UN Sanctions period”, in Oil and Gas Journal, vol. 95, no. 15, 1997.

Locke, J. MD Challenges Sanctions against Iraq, in Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 166, no. 10, 2002.

Loe, L. “Grassroots Activism in Houston, Texas, USA in Response to Malnutrition in Iraq Resulting from United Nations Sanctions”, in Ecology of Food and Nutrition, vol. 40. no. 6, 2001.

Mann, P. “Tighter Sanctions Urged Against Iraqi Smuggling”, in Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 148, no. 10, 1998.

Niblock, T. and Freedman, RO. ”’Pariah States’ and Sanctions in the Middle East: Iraq, Libya, Sudan”, in American Political Science Review, vol. 96, no. 1, 2002.

--. and Dodge, T. “‘Pariah States’ and Sanctions in the Middle East: Iraq, Libya and Sudan”, in International Affairs, vol. 77, no. 4, 2001.

Pellet, PL. “Nutrition Information as an Activist Tool With Special Reference to Iraq”, in Ecology of Food and Nutrition, vol. 40, no. 6, 2001.

Perthes, V. “Sanctions Against Iraq – Only Direct Sanctions Will Work”, in Internationale Politik, vol. 55, no. 6, 2000.

Rao, M. “Sanctions Kill Children in Iraq”, in Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 35, no. 18, 2000.

Rubin, M. “Sanctions on Iraq: a Valid Anti-American Grievance?”, in Middle East Review of International Affairs, vol. 5, no. 4, 2001.

Said, E. “Apocalypse Now (The United States Regime of Sanctions Against Iraq)”, in Index on Censorship, vol. 29, no. 5, 2000.

Sammonds, N. “An Image of Flowers (the Consequences of Sanctions on the Iraqi People”, in Index on Censorship, vol. 29, no. 2, 2000.

Simons, G. and Bishku, MB. “The Scourging of Iraq: Sanctions and Natural Justice” in Middle East Journal, vol. 54, no. 2, 2000.

--. and Roberts, R. “The Scourging of Iraq: Sanctions, law and Natural Justice”, in Current History, vol. 97, no. 615, 1998.

--. and Glass, C. “The Scourging of Iraq – Sanctions, Law and Natural Justice”, in The Times Literary Supplement, no. 4926, 1997.

--. And Handerson, S. “The Iraqi: Sanctions and Natural Justice”, in International Affairs, vol. 73, no. 3, 1997.

Sponeck, HC. “Iraq: International Sanctions and What Next?”, in Middle East Policy, vol. 7, no. 4, 2000.

Wakai, S. “Life After Sanctions: the Fate of Iraq”, in Lancet, vol. 356, no. 9230, 2000

Walker, ES. “Sanctions Against Iraq - Hitting Saddam Hussein Effectively”, in Internationale Politik, vol. 55, no. 6, 2000.

Wall, R. and Fulghum, DA. “Altering Sanctions May Benefit Iraq’s Rearming”, in Aviation Week & Space Technology, vol. 154, no. 10, 2001.

Wareham, SJ. “Economic Sanctions and Public Health: the Case of Iraq”, in Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 173, no. 8, 2000.

Libya

Lorenzetti, M. “US legislators Mull Renewal of Iran, Libya Sanctions”, in Oil & Gas Journal, vol. 99, no. 20, 2001.

Pargeter, A. “Libya- All Change for No Change”, in World Today, vol. 56, no. 8, 2000.

Zoubir, YH. “Libya in US Foreign Policy: From Rouge State to Good Fellow?”, in Third World Quarterly, vol 23, no. 1, 2002.

Myanmar/Burma

Crow, P. “Myanmar Sanctions”, in Oil and Gas Journal, vol 98, no. 26, 2000.

McCarthy, S. “Ten Years of Chaos in Burma: Foreign Investment and Economic Liberalization Under the SLORC-SPDC, 1988 to 1998”, in Pacific Affairs, vol. 73, no. 2, 2000.

Nigeria

Lewis, PM., Robinson, PT., Rubin, BR., and Gana, A. “Stabilizing Nigeria: Sanctions, Incentives and Support for Civil Society”, in Governance-an International Journal of Policy and Administration, vol. 12, no. 4, 1999.

North Korea

Linda, JM. “Gambling with Globalism: Japanese Financial Flows to North Korea and the Sanctions Policy Options”, in Pacific Review, vol. 10, no. 3, 1997.

Martin, CH. "Rewarding North Korea: theoretical perspectives on the 1994 Agreed Framwork", in Journal of Peace Research, vol. 39, no. 1, 2002

Pakistan

Masood, E. “Pakistan Weighs up Impact of Sanctions…”, in Nature, vol. 393, no. 6684 1998.

South Africa

Coovadia, HM. “Sanctions and the Struggle for Health in South Africa”, in American Journal of Public Health, vol. 89, no. 10, 1999.

Crawford, NC. Klotz, A. Zunes, S. “How Sanctions Work: Lessons from South Africa”, in Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 38. no. 3, 2000.

--., Klotz, A., and Wiliams, P. “How Sanctions Work: Lessons from South Africa”, in Millennium-Journal of International Studies, vol. 28, no. 3, 1999.

Hale, TD., and Berat, L. “United States Sanctions and South Africa: a Selected Bibliography”, in International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 30, no. 1, 1997.

--. and Schmidt, E. “United-States Sanctions and South-Africa: Selected legal Bibliography”, in African Economic History, vol. 24, 1996.

John, N. “The Campaign Against British Bank Involvement in Apartheid South Africa”, in African Affairs, vol. 99, no. 396, no. 2000.

Levy, PI. “Sanctions on South Africa: What did They Do?”, in American Economic Review, vol. 89, no. 2, 1999.

Lowenberg, AD. “Why South Africa’s Apartheid Economy Failed”, in Contemporary Economic Policy, vol. 15, no. 3, 1997.

Schwartzman, KC., and Taylor, KA. “What Caused the Collapse of Apartheid”?, in Journal of Political and Military Sociology, vol. 27, no. 1, 1999.

Zunes, S. “The Role of Non-violent Action in the Downfall of Apartheid”, in Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 37, no. 1, 1999.

U.S. Sanctions

Clairmont, FF. “Clinton’s Killing Fields”, in Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 34, no. 31, 1999.

Clark, HL. “Dealing with US Extraterritorial Sanctions and Foreign Countermeasures”, in University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Economic Law, vol. 20, no. 1, 1999.

Denning, BP., and McCall, JH. “States’ Rights and Foreign policy – Some Things Should be Left to Washington”, in Foreign Affairs, vol. 79, no. 1, 2000

Frost, EL. “Dealing with Rouge Governments – United States Sanctions and Transatlantic Relations”, Internationale Politik, vol. 52, no. 4, 1997.

Gwynne, P. “Scientists Fall Four of US Sanctions”, in Physics World, vol. 11, no. 9, 1998.

Hass, RN. and Rologas, M. “Economic Sanctions and American Diplomacy”, in International Affairs, vol. 76, no. 1, 2000.

--. and Bierling, S. “Economic Sanctions and the American Diplomacy”, in Internationale Politik, vol. 53, no. 10, 1998.

Helms, J. “What Sanctions Epidemic? US Business’ Curious Crusade”, in Foreign Affairs, vol. 78, no. 1, 1999.

Jayaraman, KS. “India and Pakistan Face More US Sanctions” in Nature, vol. 396, no. 6708, 1998.

--. “Computer Sanctions ‘Could Affect US Weapons Research’”, in Nature, vol. 386, no. 6627, 1997.

Kline, JM. “Continuing Controversies Over State and Local Foreign Policy Sanctions in the United States”, in Publius-The Journal of Federalism, vol. 29, no. 2, 1999.

Kumagai, J. “Physicists Question US Sanctions on Scientific Collaborations with India and Pakistan”, in Physics Today, vol. 51, no. 9, 1998.

Lang, AF. “Responsibility in the International System: Reading US Foreign Policy in the Middle East”, in European Journal of International Relations, vol. 5, no. 1, 1999

Mistry, D. “Diplomacy, Sanctions, and the US Non-proliferation Dialogue With India and Pakistan”, in Asian Survey, vol. 39, no. 5, 1999.

Pegg, S. "Sanctions Beyond Borders: Multinational Corporations and US Economic Statecraft", in American Political Science Review, vol. 96, no. 4, 2002.

Schuette, SP." U.S. Economic sanctions regarding the proliferation of nuclear weapons: a call for reform of the Arms Export Control Act sanctions", in Cornell International Law Journal vol. 35, no. 1.

Selden, Z., and Kaempfer, WH. “Economic Sanctions as Instruments of American Foreign Policy”, in International History Review, vol. 22, no. 3, 2000.

Shambaugh, GE., and Crawford, NC. “States, Firms and Powers: Successful Sanctions in United States Foreign Policy”, in Political Science Quarterly, vol. 115, no. 3, 2000.

--. and Drezner, DW. “States, Firms and Power: Successful Sanctions in United States Foreign Policy”, in American Political Science Review, vol. 94, no. 2, 2000.

Stern, B. “Unilateral Economic Sanctions – Helms-Burton, D’Amato and the Europeans”, in Internationale Politik, vol. 52, no. 4, 1997.

Takin, M. “US Sanctions Against oil Giants at Odds with its Caspian Policy”, in Oil and Gas Journal, vol. 95, no. 41, 1997.

Yuan, JD. “Sanctions, Domestic Politics, and US China Policy, in Issues and Studies, vol. 33, no. 10, 1997.

Yugoslavia

Garfield, R. Economic Sanctions on Yugoslavia”, in Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9281, 2001.

Kulessa, M. “Sanctions Against Yugoslavia. ‘Soft cushion’ or Effective Instrument?”, in Internationale Politik, vol. 54, no. 6, 1999.

Stark, H. “Embargo With Limited Impact. Sanctions Against Serbia and Montenegro”, in Internationale Politik, vol. 52, no.7, 1997.

Valentino, B., Vlajinac, HD., and Kocev, JMMNI., Adanja, BJ., Pekmezovic, TD., Sipetic, SB., and Jovanovic, DDJ. “Infectious Diseases Mortality in Central Serbia”, in Journal of Epidemiology and Community health, vol. 51, no. 2, 1997.

Special Reports and Other

Africa Research Centre, Black Caucus. The Sanctions Weapon: A Summary of the Debate Over Sanctions Against South Africa (Cape Town: Buchu Books, 1989).

American Friends Service Committee. Working Group on International Economic Sanctions. Dollars or Bombs: the Search for Justice Through International Economic Sanctions (Philadelphia: American Friends Service Committee, 1993).

Amorim Group Report. Informal Open Ended Working Group on an Agenda for Peace- Subgroup on the Question of United Nations Imposed Sanctions. Chaired by Ambassador Celso Amorim of Brazil (United Nations General Assembly 1996).

Anti-Apartheid Movement. Sanctions Begin to Bite: A Study (London: Anti Apartheid Movement, 1987).

Carter Center of Emory University. Final Report of the Meeting on the Viability of International Economic Sanctions (Atlanta: Carter Center, 1996).

Center for Economic and Social Rights. UN Sanctioned Suffering in Iraq (New York: Center for Economic and Social Rights, 1996).

Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on Southern Africa. Banking on Apartheid: the Financial Sanctions Report/Statement of Foreign Ministers on Southern Africa; Report of the Inter-Governmental Group of Officials (London: Commonwealth Secretariat, 1989).

--. South Africa: the Sanctions Report-Prepared for the Common Wealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on Southern Africa (London: Penguin, 1989).

Council of Europe. Committee of Ministers. Staff Concerned With the Implementation of Sanctions and Measures: Recommendation No. R (97)12, Adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 10th September 1997, and Explanatory Memorandum (Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 1999).

--. Committee of Ministers. European Rules on Community Sanctions and Measures: Recommendation No. R (92) 16 Adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 19 October 1992 and Explanatory Memorandum (Strasbourg: Council of Europe Press, 1994).

Dag Hammarskjöld Library. Sanctions Against South Africa: A Selective Bibliography (New York: United Nations, 1981).

Federal Secretariat of Information, Yugoslavia. Sanctions Against Yugoslavia (Novi Beograd: Federal Secretariat of Information, 1998).

Harvard University. School of Public Health. Sanctions in Haiti: Crisis in Humanitarian Action. Program on Human Security. Working Paper (Cambridge: Harvard University Center for Population and Development Studies, 1993).

International Labour Office. Study of the Embargo of Coal Exports from South Africa: Report of a Study Conducted Under the Auspices of the Group of Independent Experts Appointed by the Governing Body of the ILO to Follow Up and Monitor the Implementation of Sanctions and Other Action Against Apartheid (Geneva: International Labour Office, 1992).

--. Financial Sanctions Against South Africa: Report of a Study Concluded Under the Auspices of the Group of Independent Experts Appointed by the Governing Body of the ILO to Follow Up and Monitor the Implementation of Sanctions and other Action Against Apartheid (Geneva: International Labour Office, 1991).

International Monetary Fund (IMF). Policy Development and Review Department. Impact of Implementing the UN Sanctions against the FRY (Washington: IMF, 1994).

Investor Responsibility Research Center. The Impact of Sanctions on South Africa: Part One. the Economy (Washington D.C.: Investor Responsibility Research Center, 1990)

--. The Impact of Sanctions on South Africa: Part Two- Whites’ Political Attitudes (Washington D.C.: Investor Responsibility Research Center, 1990).

Royal Institute of International Affairs. International Sanctions: A Report (London: Oxford University Press, 1938).

--. Sanctions: the Character of International Sanctions and Their Application. Department Paper No. 7 (London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1935).

South Africa Institute of International Affairs and South African Institute of Race Relations. South Africa and Sanctions: Genesis and Prospects- Papers and Comments Delivered at a Symposium Jointly Organised by the South African Institute of Race Relations and the South Africa Institute of International Affairs, on Feb. 24, 1979  (Johannesburg, South Africa institute of international affairs, 1979).

Stanley Foundation. Political Symbol or Policy Tool: Making Sanctions Work (Muscatine: The Stanley Foundation, 1993).

Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown Univerisity. Targeted Financial Sanctions: A Manual for Design and Implementation-Contributions from the Interlaken Process. The Swiss Confederation in cooperation with the United Nations Secretariat (Providence: Thomas Watson Institute for International Studies, 2001).

ibid. Targeted Financial Sanctions Simulations. Naval WarCollege, Newport, Rhode Island, May 11-13, 2000. Exercise Report (The Watson Intstitute for International Studies, Brown University and the Decision Strategies Department of the Center for Naval Warfare Studies of the U.S. Naval War College. DsD Report 01-2, 2002).

U. N. Related

United Nations. Centre against Apartheid. International Conference on Sanctions Against South Africa UNESCO House, Paris 20-27 May, 1981 (New York: United Nations Centre against apartheid, 1983).

--. General Assembly Resolutions. Implementation of the Provisions of the Charter of the United Nations Related to Assistance to Third States Affected by the Application of Sanctions. A/RES/54/107 (New York: General Assembly, 2000).

--. Implementation of the Provisions of the Charter of the United Nations Related to Assistance to Third States Affected by the Application of Sanctions. A/RES/53/107 (New York: General Assembly, 1999).

--. Implementation of the Provisions of the Charter of the United Nations Related to Assistance to Third States Affected by the Application of Sanctions. A/RES/50/51 (New York: General Assembly, 1995).

--. Economic Assistance to States Affected by the Implementation of the Security Council Resolutions Imposing Sanctions Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). A/RES/48/210, 1995 (New York: General Assembly, 1993).

--. Supplement to an Agenda for Peace: RES/51/242, 1997 (New York: General Assemly, 1997).

--. Security Council. Final Report of the Monitoring Mechanism on Angola Sanctions. S/2000/1225 (New York: United Nations, 2000).

--. Report of the Panel of Experts on Sierra Leone Diamonds and Arms. S/2000/1195 (New York: United Nations, 2000).

--. Security Council. Note by the President of the Security Council: Work of the Sanctions Committees. S/1999/92 (New York: United Nations, 1999)

--. Note by the President of the Security Council. S/1998/1016, 1998 (New York: United Nations, 1998)

--. Note by the President of the Security Council. S/1996/54, 1996 (New York: United Nations, 1996)

--. Note by the President of the Security Council. S/1995/438, 1995 (New York: United Nations, 1996)

--. Note by the President of the Security Council. Letter dated 13 April 1995 from the permanent Representatives of China, The Russian Federation, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America to the United Nations Addressed to the President of Security Council. S/1995/300, 1995 (New York: United Nations, 1996)

--. UN Sanctions: How Effective? How Necessary? Strategic Planning Unit, Executive Office of the Secretary General, United Nations, New York. 2nd Interlaken Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1999

-- Letter dated 24 September 1996 from the Chairman of the Security Council Committee established pursuant to Resolution 724 (1991) concerning Yugoslavia addressed to the President of the Security Council. Report of the Copenhagen Roundtable on United Nations Sanctions in the Case of the Former Yugoslavia, held at Copenhagen on 24 and 25 June. S/1996/776, 1996.

--. Non-Paper on Humanitarian Aspects of Sanctions. S/1995/300 (New York: United Nations, 1995).

--. Report of the Secretary-General on the Implementation of the Provisions of the Charter Related to Assistance to Third States Affected by the Application of Sanctions. A/53/312, (New York: United Nations, 1998).

--. Secretary General of the United Nations. Report on Economic Assistance to States Affected by the Implementation of the Security Council Resolutions Imposing Sanctions Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. A/51/356 (New York: United Nations, 1996).

--. Position paper of the Secretary-General on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations. A/50/60-S/1995/1, 3, 1995 (New York: United Nations, 1995).

--. Sanctions Against South Africa: the Peaceful Alternative to Violent Change (New York: United Nations, 1988).

--. The Case for Sanctions Against South Africa: International Year of Mobilization for Sanctions Against South Africa, 1982 (New York: United Nations, 1982).

--. World Conference on Sanctions Against Racist South Africa, Paris France. 1986. Sanctions against South Africa: the peaceful alternative to violent change. (New York: United Nations, 1988).

--. Report of the World Conference on Sanctions Against Racist South Africa: Paris, 16-20th June, 1986 (New York: United Nations, 1986).

--. Sanctions Against South Africa: Record of the Special Meeting of the General Assembly for the International Year of Mobilization for Sanctions Against South Africa (New York: United Nations Centre against apartheid, 1983).

--. Sanctions Against South Africa: Record of the Special Meeting of the General Assembly for the International Year of Mobilization for Sanctions Against South Africa (New York; United Nations centre against Apartheid, 1983).

--. Report of the International Conference on Sanctions Against South Africa, Paris, 20-27 May 1981. International Conference on Sanctions Against South Africa (New York: United Nations, 1981).

--. Pan-Africanism and the Liberation of Southern Africa: International Tribute to William E.B. DuBoisk: Statements Made at the Special Meetings of the Special Committee Against Apartheid held on 23 February 1978 (New York; United Nations Centre Against Apartheid, 1982).

U. S. Related

United States. Congress. House. Committee on International Relations. Subcommittee on International Economic Policy and Trade. Sanctions Revisited: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on International Economic Policy and Trade of the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, 105th Congress, Second Session, September 10th, 1998 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1999).

--. Department of State. UN Sanctions against Belgrade: Lessons Learned for Future Regimes. Paper prepared by Interagency Task Force on Serbian Sanctions (Washington D.C: Department of State, 1996).

--. General Accounting Office. International Trade: Issues Regarding Imposition of an Oil Embargo against Nigeria: Report Prepared for the Chairman, Subcommittee on Africa, Committee on Foreign Relations, US. House of Representatives. 103rd Congress, 2d Session. GAO/GDD 95-24 (Washington D.C.: GAO, 1994).

--. Economic Sanctions: Effectiveness as Tools of Foreign Policy (Washington, D.C.: GAO, 1993).

--. GAO Evidence Regarding Non-Compliance with the OAS Embargo. GAO/NSIAD B-248828., in (Washington D.C.: GAO, 1992)

--. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Sanctions Legislation Relating to the Yugoslav Civil War, S. 1973: Hearing Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, 102 Congress, First Session, October 16, 1991 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1992).

--. Congress. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Sanctions Against Iraq: Markup Before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, H.R. 4585, and H.R. 5431, August 1 and 2, 1990 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1990).

--. Subcommittee on International Economic Policy and Trade. Sanctions Against Libya: Hearing and Markup Before the Committee on Foreign Affairs and its Subcommittee on International Economic Policy and Trade, House of  Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 4847, May 20 and June 5, 1986 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1988).

--. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on Africa. Rhodesian Sanctions: Should the United States Lift Them?: Hearing and Markup Before the Committee on Foreign Affairs and its Subcommittees on Africa and on International Organizations, House of Representatives, 2076, December 5 and 11, 1979 (Washington, D. C.: U.S. Government printing office, 1980).

--. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on International Organizations and Movements. Economic Sanctions Against Rhodesia: Hearings Before the Subcommittees on Africa and on International Organizations of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives (Washington D.C.: U.S. Government printing office, 1979).

--. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on African affairs. Rhodesian Sanctions: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on African Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate- Ninety-fifth Congress, First Session: S. 174. A Bill to Amend the United Nations Participation Act of 1945 to Halt the Importation of Rhodesian Chrome, February 9 and 19, 1977 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government printing office, 1977).

--. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on International Organizations and Movements. Sanctions as an Instrument of the United Nations- Rhodesia as a As Case Study. Hearings, Ninety-second Congress, Second Session. June 13. 15, and 19, 1972 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1972).

--. Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. US Economic Sanctions Imposed Against Specific Foreign Countries: 1979 to the Present. CRS Report for the Congress 88-612 F, RVD (Washington D.C.: Library of Congress, 1988).

Selected Conference Papers Published on the World Wide Web

Bennis, Phyllis, Zunes. Stephen, and Honey, Martha. U.S. Policy Toward Iraq: Policy Alternatives-Proceedings of the Conference Hosted by the Campaign Against Sanctions on Iraq, 13-14- November (Cambridge: Foreign Policy In Focus, 1999).

Berman, Eric. Sanctions Against the Genocidaires: Experiences of the 1998 UN International Commission of Inquiry. Paper, first Expert Seminar on Smart Sanctions, the Next Step: Arms Embargoes and Travel Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.de/, Bonn, 1999.

Bondi, Loretta. Arms Embargoes. Paper, first Expert Seminar on Smart Sanctions, the Next Step: Arms Embargoes and Travel Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.de/, Bonn, 1999.

van Brabant. Can Sanctions be Smarter?: The Current Debate: Report of a Conference Held in London, 16-17, December 1998 (London: The Humanitarian Policy Group and the Relief and Rehabilitation Network at the Overseas Development Institute, 1999).

-- (ed.). Sanctions: the Current Debate: A summary of Selected Readings. London: The Humanitarian Policy Group and the Relief and Rehabilitation Network at the Overseas Development Institute, 1999.

Brozka, Michael. Smart Sanctions: the Next Steps- the Debate on Arms Embargoes and Travel Sanctions within the ‘Bonn-Berlin Process’. Bonn International Center for Conversion, no. 6 (Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 2001).

Brüderlein, Claude. Carrot and Stick Approach for the Implementation of Financial Sanctions. Expert Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1998

Burri, Jürg. Introductary Paper. Expert Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1998.

Carver, Jeremy. Making Financial Sanctions Work: Preconditions for Successful Implementation of Sanctions by the Implementing State. Expert Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1998.

Cluckers, Albert. How can Financial Assets and Financial Transactions Be Controlled? Comments from a Banker’s Point of View. Expert Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1998.

Conroy, Richard W. Implementation Problems of Travel Bans: Practical and Legal Aspects. Paper, first Expert Seminar on Smart Sanctions, the Next Step: Arms Embargoes and Travel Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.de/, Bonn, 1999.

Doxey, Margaret. Financial Sanctions: Topic for Research. Expert Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions http://www.smartsanctions.ch/ Switzerland, 1998.

Doyle, Bernadette, and Newcomb, Richard. Report Working Group 2: Development of Sanctions Regimes. Expert Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1998.

Eitel, Tono. Report Working Group 1: Preconditions for Successful Implementation, Expert Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1998.

Elliot, Kimberly Ann. Analysing the Effects of Targeted Financial Sanctions. 2nd Interlaken Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1999

Galloway, Diane. Report Working Group 3: Monitoring and Administering Financial Sanctions through UN bodies, Expert Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1998.

Jeker, Rolf. Chairman’s Conclusions. Expert Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1998.

--. Chairman’s Report. Expert Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1998.

--. How Can Financial Assets and Financial Transactions Be Controlled? Expert Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1998.

--. Lessons Learned and Definitions. Expert Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1998.

--. Welcome Address. Expert Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1998.

--. Chairman’s Report. 2nd Interlaken Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1999.

--. Chairman’s Welcoming Presentation. 2nd Interlaken Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1999

--. Chairman’s Introductury Statement. 2nd Interlaken Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1999

--. UN Sanctions and Debt Service. 2nd Interlaken Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions,
http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1999.

Lennan, Ken. Background Paper for Working Group 3. Paper prepared by the European Comission for the 2nd Interlaken Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1999

Luck, Edward C. Choosing Words Carefully: Arms Embargoes and the UN Security Council. Paper, first Expert Seminar on Smart Sanctions, the Next Step: Arms Embargoes and Travel Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.de/, Bonn, 1999.

Newcomb, Richard. Targeting Financial Sanctions. Expert Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1998.

Rydell, Randy. Monitoring United Nations Arms Embargoes. Paper, first Expert Seminar on Smart Sanctions, the Next Step: Arms Embargoes and Travel Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.de/, Bonn, 1999.

Schoenberger, Christian. Evasion and Control of Financial Sanctions – Practical Considerations. Expert Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1998.

--. Multilateral Implementation of Targeted Financial Sanctions – Lessons from the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF). 2nd Interlaken Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions,  http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1999

Stephanides, Joseph. A Brief Overview of United Nations Applied Sanctions. Expert Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1998.

Yoshikawa, Motohide. Implementation of Sanctions Imposed by the United Nations Security Council – Japan’s Experience. Expert Seminar on Targeting UN Financial Sanctions, http://www.smartsanctions.ch/, Switzerland, 1998.

Other Links that includes sanctions themes, programmes, resources etc.

http://www.smartsanctions.ch/

http://www.smartsanctions.de/

http://www.smartsanctions.se/

http://www.watsoninstitute.org/project_detail.cfm?ID=4

http://www.fourthfreedom.org/php/t-si-index.php

http://www.ustreas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/sanctions/index.html

http://www.iie.com/

http://www3.nd.edu/~krocinst/research/econsanc.html

http://www.globalpolicy.org/ 

Recent resolutions by the UNSC

North Korea

30 November 2016 – With Resolution 2321 the Security Council decides that Members of the Government of DPRK and vessels believed to be related to nuclear- or ballistic missile-related programmes or activities prohibited Security Council resolutions, shall be prohibited from entering Member States’ territories and ports. Member states shall prohibit DPRK from using real property in their territory for any purpose other than diplomatic activities and take necessary measures to close bank accounts in DPRK within 90 days.

A ban on DPRK’s selling, and Member States’ procurement, of copper, nickel, silver and zink is imposed.

The mandate of the Committee set out in resolution 1718 shall apply also to the measures imposed in this resolution.

Somalia

10 November 2016 – With Resolution 2317 the Security Council decides to renew the provisions set out in resolution 2142 (2014) stating that the arms embargo on Somalia shall not apply deliveries of weapons, ammunition or military equipment or the provision of advice, assistance or training, intended solely for the development of the Security Forces of the Federal Government of Somalia to provide security for the Somali people. 

More UN Sanctions