Liberia

Recent Sanctions-related UN Resolutions

25 May 2016 –With Resolution 2288 the Security Council decides to terminate, with immediate effect, the measures on arms imposed in 2003 by resolution 1521. It is also decided that the Committee and the Panel of Experts established in 2003 by resolution 1521 shall be ended with immediate effect. 

2 September 2015 –With Resolution 2237 the Security Council decides to renew the measures on arms and travel imposed by resolution 1521 (2003) for a period of nine months. SC also decides to terminate travel and financial measures set forth in resolution 1521 (2003). The mandate of the Panel of Experts is extended for a period of 10 months to undertake specified tasks in close collaboration with the Government of Liberia and the Côte d’Ivoire Group of Experts.

9 December 2014 –With Resolution 2188 the Security Council decides to renew the measures on arms and travel imposed by resolution 1521 (2003) for a period of nine months. The measures are maintained under continuous review with a view to modifying or lifting them dependent on Liberia’s progress towards meeting the conditions set out in 2003 (SCR 1521) for terminating those measures, and in light of the threat to peace and security in Liberia posed by the Ebola virus.

The mandate of the Panel of Experts is extended for a period of ten months.

10 December 2013 –With Resolution 2128 the Security Council decides to renew the measures on arms and travel imposed by resolution 1521 (2003) for a period of 12 months. The mandate of the Panel of Experts is extended for the same period of time. It is also decided that individuals and entities imposed to measures by resolution 1532 (2004) shall be removed on a case-by-case basis within a period of 90 days if they no longer meet the listing criteria outlined by those measures.  

12 December 2012 –With Resolution 2079 the Security Council decides to renew the measures on arms and travel imposed by resolution 1521 (2003) for a period of 12 months.

The mandate of the Panel of Experts is extended for the same period of time.

14 December 2011 –With Resolution 2025 the Security Council decides to renew the measures on arms and travel imposed by resolution 1521 (2003) for a period of 12 months. The mandate of the Panel of Experts is extended for the same period of time.

28 April 2011 – With Resolution 1980 the Security Council decides to adopt targeted sanctions against those individuals who meet the criteria set out in resolution 1572 (2004) and subsequent resolutions including individuals who obstruct peace and reconciliation, the work of UNOCI and other international actors in the country and those who commit serious violations of human rights. President Laurent Gbagbo and other seniors in his administration listed in this resolution are subject to such travel ban and assets freeze on the grounds indicated above.

17 December 2010 – With Resolution 1961 the Security Council decides to renew the measures on arms and travel imposed by resolution 1521 (2003) for a period of 12 months. SC decides to review any of the above measures at the request of the Government of Liberia, once the Government reports to the Council that the conditions, set out in resolution 1521 (2003) for terminating the measures, have been met. The mandate of the Panel of Experts is extended until 16 December 2011.

15 September 2009 – The Security Council decides, with resolution 1885, to extend the mandate of UNMIL one year until 30 September 2010.

19 December 2008 – With resolution 1854 the Security Council decides that the arms embargo and travel ban is extended for another 12 month period and that the member states shall notify the Committee of any arms delivery. It is also decided that the measures shall be reviewed upon request by the Government of Liberia when it reports to the Council that the conditions for terminating the measures have been met. The mandate of the Panel of Experts is extended until 20 December 2009.

29 September 2008 – With resolution 1836 the Security Council decides that the mandate of UNMIL is extended until 30 September 2009.

18 December 2007 –The arms embargo and travel ban are renewed for another twelve months. Member States shall notify the Committee upon delivery of all arms and related material. It is also decided that once the Government of Liberia reports to the Council and provides the information that the conditions for terminating the sanctions are met, the assessment of the sanctions will be reviewed. The mandate of the Panel of Experts is extended until 20 June 2008.

27 April 2007 – With resolution 1753 the Security Council decides to lift the diamond embargo imposed by resolution 1521 in 2003. It is to be reviewed after consideration of the report of the UN Panel of Experts and of the report of the Kimberley Process. In resolution 1760 (June 2007) the Security Council requests that a Panel of Experts reports by 6 December 2007.

20 December 2006 – Although it is noted that the situation in Liberia keeps improving the arms embargo and the travel ban is renewed for twelve months through resolution 1731. The arms embargo does not cover supply to the government controlled police and security forces of non-lethal weapons or arms supplies that have been pre-approved by the Committee. The diamond embargo is renewed for six months, and will be reviewed after four months. The mandate of the Panel of Experts is extended until 20 June 2007.

20 June 2006 – With resolution 1689 the Security Council decides to lift the timber embargo that was imposed through paragraph 10 of resolution 1521. The decision will be reviewed after 90 days and the measure reinstated unless the forestry legislation proposed by the Forestry Reform Monitoring Committee is supported by the legislature.

The diamond sanctions are renewed for six months since the Certificate of origin regime have not been completed. The Panel of Experts is re-established for another six months to continue monitoring the situation.

13 June 2006 – The Security Council decides through resolution 1683 (2006) that the Liberia arms embargo should not apply for arms and ammunition that have been approved by the Committee for the training of the Liberian Special Security Services (SSS). Such arms are also allowed to be taken in operational use by the SSS. The Security Council also decides that the arms embargo will be eased in so far that limited supplies of arms and ammunition can be used by the new Liberian security and police forces. The supply of arms and ammunition must be approved in advance by the Committee on a case-by-case basis and it is decided that the Government of Liberia shall maintain a registry of such weapons and ammunition.

20 December 2005 – In resolution 1647 (2005) the Security Council welcomes the peaceful development and the orderly conduct of the recent elections. In the resolution it is however determined that the situation in Liberia still constitutes a threat and the Security Council decides to renew the measures on arms and travel (imposed by resolution 1521 (2003)) and the measures on diamonds and timber (imposed by resolution 1521 (2003)). It is also decided that the sanctions can be reviewed once the government of Liberia have met the conditions for removal, as set out in resolution 1521 (2003).

11 November 2005, The Security Council determines through resolution 1638 (2005) that former President Taylor’s return to Liberia would constitute a threat to the peace of Liberia and that he remains under indictment by the Special Court for Sierra Leone. The Council furthermore decides that the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) shall include the apprehending and detaining of Charles Taylor in the event that he would return to Liberia.

21 June 2005, the Security Council renews the measures on diamonds for a further period of six months, and in addition, decides to re-establish the Panel of Experts for a further period until 21 December 2005. The measures on arms, travel and timber imposed by resolution 1521 (2003) and renewed by resolution 1579 (2004) for now, remain in force until 21 December 2005

11 April 2005 - The Security Council Committee on Liberia updates its travel ban list by adding 5 individuals.

26 March 2005 - The expert panel established to investigate the sanctions against Liberia diamond exports states, in their report from March 16, that the illegal trade in diamonds persists. Also, due to the slow rate of funding and technical assistance coming in the country cannot successfully be part of the Kimberley Process that certifies rough diamonds as legal for international sale. Without that success the diamond sanctions remain in place.
See the report S/2005/176

21 December 2004 - The Security Council renewed the ban on diamond and timber industries in Liberia after receiving an expert panel report citing the failures in Liberia's management of its natural resources. The Council also decided to re-impose bans on weapons importing and travel by certain former officials.

The sanctions were renewed for a period of one year, with the exemption of the diamond ban which was renewed for six months. A decision was also taken to re-appoint an expert panel for a period of six months to monitor the measures.

See UNSCR 1579 (2004)

7 October - The Security Council concluded that the situation in Liberia is still not ripe for lifting the emaining timber and diamond sanctions. This was concluded after the Council had heard a closed-door briefing of the expert panel tasked with monitoring compliance with the measures. No violations of the diamond and timber sanctions were reported during the period under review.

17 June 2004 - The Security Council re-establsihed the Liberia sanctions expert panel to investigate the implementation and violations of the sanctions imposed last year. The panel's mandate does also include assessing progress in maintaining and respecting the cease-fire and stability in the country, conditions that have to be met for the Council to terminate the sanctions.

The panel's most recent report found no proof of weapons-, diamond-, or timber-smuggling out of Liberia, after August 2003. For the panel's most recent report see document S/2004/396

18 March 2004, The new travel ban list following the departure of President Charles Taylor has been revised and contains fewer than half of the number previously restricted. The 47 people include senior members of the former Taylor government and their spouses as well as members of Liberia's armed forces who retain links with Taylor or support armed rebel groups. The new travel ban list follows the adoption of Resolution 1521.
12 March 2004,The Security Council has decided to freeze former Liberian head of state Charles Taylor's funds. In Resolution 1532 it was decided that any assets owned by Taylor or his immediated family, senior officials of the former Taylor regime or other close allies and associates would be frozen. A recent UN report accused Mr Taylor of continuing to divert Liberian government resources, even from exile.

See Resolution 1532 (2004)

22 December 2003 - As a transitional government has been established in Monrovia, the Security Council expressed its readiness to lift the sanctions when it determines that the ceasefire in Liberia is being fully respected and maintained. The Security Council terminated its bans on the sale or supply of arms, diamonds and timber, as well as travel, and dissolved the Committee set up to monitor them. At the same time, it reapplied the measures under the watch of a new body set up by the new resolution. This was done to respond to the recent changes in liberia. A Security Council committee and a Liberian review committee will track progress towards lifting the sanctions, while a panel of experts will report to the Council by 30 May 2004 on violations, progress made and the socio-economic impact of the measures. See UNSCR 1521 (2003)

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Background

Security Council resolution 788 (1992), adopted in November 1992, imposed a general and complete arms embargo on Liberia; resolution 985 (1995) established a Committee to monitor its implementation. Resolution 1343 (2001), adopted on 7 March 2001, dissolved the Committee and terminated the arms embargo. At the same time, it established a new Committee as well as mandated more comprehensive sanctions if Liberia did not cease its support for the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) and other armed rebel groups in the region within two months. The resolution also imposed a new arms embargo with immediate effect for a 14-month period. The additional measures—which included a ban on the import of Liberian diamonds as well as the travel of senior members of the Government and its armed forces and their spouses and any individuals providing support to armed rebel groups in countries neighboring Liberia—entered into force in May 2001 for a 12-month period. In addition, the resolution established a five-member Panel of Experts, chaired by Martin Chungong Ayafor (Cameroon), for a period of six months to monitor the implementation of the sanctions and to investigate any violations; the final report of the Panel was published as S/2001/1015 and the mandate of the Panel expired in October 2001 without being renewed.

The Security Council on 4 May and 7 November 2001 held reviews of the sanctions regime as provided for in paragraph 23 of resolution 1343 (2001). At the second review, the Council considered an oral report by the Chairman, the report of the Panel of Experts on Liberia (S/2001/1015), and the reports of the Secretary-General pursuant to paragraphs 12 and 13 of resolution 1343 (2001). The Secretary-General’s reports addressed the issues of Liberia’s compliance with the sanctions regime (S/2001/1025); economic, humanitarian, and social impacts on the Liberian population of possible future sanctions (S/2001/939); and the steps taken by Liberia to improve its air traffic control and surveillance capacity (S/2001/965).

On 5 May 2003 the Security Council announced its intention to extend the sanctions against Liberia following the Council´s six-month review of the situation in the country. The Council also heard the report of its expert panel, which had just returned from West Africa on a follow-up investigation on Liberia's compliance with the sanctions. For the expert panel report on Liberia see document S/2003/498. In resolution 1478 (2003) adopted on 6 May the Security Council extended the existing sanctions against Liberia until 7 May 2004, and added a 10-month ban on the import of its timber. The Council cited Liberia's active support of rebel groups which are having a destabilizing effect on West Africa and the non-compliance of resolution 1343 (2001) as reasons for the extension of the sanctions. Existing sanctions consist of an arms embargo, a ban on rough diamonds and travel restrictions on senior government members.

Socio-economic effect of embargo on Liberian timber examined in UN report

An assessment of the recently imposed timber santions on Liberia has determined that the embargo will have an impact on the country, according to a new UN report released on 7 August. The 10-month ban on the import of all round logs and timber products originating from Liberia went into effect on 7 July, as the Liberian government had not shown that revenue from the timber industry was used for legitimate social, humanitarian and development purposes.

In resolution 1478 (2003) adopted on 6 May the Security Council extended the existing sanctions against Liberia until 7 May 2004, and added a 10-month ban on the import of its timber. The Council cited Liberia's active support of rebel groups which are having a destabilizing effect on West Africa and the non-compliance of resolution 1343 (2001) as reasons for the extension of the sanctions. For the expert panel report on Liberia see document S/2003/498.

26 August, concerned that timber might still be used to fuel conflict in Liberia the Security Council decided to maintain its newly imposed timber embargo. Developments in Liberia in the coming weeks and months are said to be of direct relevance to the Council's review of the sanctions.

Recent resolutions by the UNSC

North Korea

30 November 2016 – With Resolution 2321 the Security Council decides that Members of the Government of DPRK and vessels believed to be related to nuclear- or ballistic missile-related programmes or activities prohibited Security Council resolutions, shall be prohibited from entering Member States’ territories and ports. Member states shall prohibit DPRK from using real property in their territory for any purpose other than diplomatic activities and take necessary measures to close bank accounts in DPRK within 90 days.

A ban on DPRK’s selling, and Member States’ procurement, of copper, nickel, silver and zink is imposed.

The mandate of the Committee set out in resolution 1718 shall apply also to the measures imposed in this resolution.

Somalia

10 November 2016 – With Resolution 2317 the Security Council decides to renew the provisions set out in resolution 2142 (2014) stating that the arms embargo on Somalia shall not apply deliveries of weapons, ammunition or military equipment or the provision of advice, assistance or training, intended solely for the development of the Security Forces of the Federal Government of Somalia to provide security for the Somali people. 

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