Peacekeepers’ risk-exposure: Determinants of deliberate attacks and impacts for intervention efficacy


Project leader

Project period

  • 2019 – ongoing


UN peacekeepers are widely viewed as being at growing risk of direct and deliberate violence in contexts where they operate. Such violence can carry grave costs for those immediately affected, but also appears to impede interveners’ operations in different ways. Concerns about the safety and security of peacekeepers have risen in recent years, but why peacekeepers become the targets of attack in the first place and with what impacts for mission efficacy remains poorly understood.

This project seeks to make two main contributions to a nascent area of research. First, it examines the impact of key features related to the local conflict context on prevalence and patterns of attacks on peacekeepers. Second, it explores the relationship between attacks and peacekeepers’ performance and ability to operate effectively. To do so, the project will collect original data for both qualitative and quantitative analysis, including by expanding on a recent data collection effort on the topic, the UCDP Peacemakers at Risk (PAR) dataset.


  • Lindberg Bromley, S. (2018). Introducing the UCDP Peacemakers at Risk dataset, sub-Saharan Africa 1989-2009. Journal of Peace Research, 55(1), 122–131.
  • Fjelde, Hanne, Lisa Hultman & Sara Lindberg Bromley (2016). Offsetting Losses: Bargaining Power and Rebel Attacks on Peacekeepers. International Studies Quarterly, 60(4): 611-623.
  • Lindberg Bromley, Sara (2017). Keeping Peace while Under Fire: The Causes, Consequences and Characteristics of Violence against Peacekeepers [PhD Dissertation]. Uppsala University.
  • Elfversson, Emma; Sara Lindberg Bromley & Paul D. Williams. 2019. “Urban peacekeeping under siege: Attacks on African Union peacekeepers in Mogadishu, 2007-2009.” Third World Thematics 4(2-3): 158-178.
  • Lindberg Bromley, Sara, Chiara Ruffa and Sabine Otto (2020) What do peacekeepers do, really? A research note about activities in UN peacekeeping. Working paper.


The Swedish Research Council (International Postdoc)

Senast uppdaterad: 2021-01-22