Peacemakers at Risk: Understanding Violence against Third Party Interveners

Project Overview

Project Leader

Project Period

  • 2010 - ongoing

Project Description

In collaboration with the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP), the Peacemakers at Risk (PAR) data collection project focuses on tracking violence against peacekeepers to advance a nascent research field. The current version of the dataset focuses on peacekeeping operations deployed by the UN and other actors to conflict-affected countries in Africa in the 1989-2009 time-period. It records reported incidences of violence resulting in peacekeeping personnel fatalities, injuries and kidnappings and provides detailed information on the timing, location, outcomes and actors implicated for each event, including information on the nationalities of violence-affected peacekeepers.

This novel data allows researchers to develop and test new research questions related to the causes and consequences of violence involving peacekeepers, and enables more systematic assessment of the risks facing interveners in insecure environments. Designed to be compatible with other UCDP data on organized violence, the PAR dataset can also be used to study interlinkages between violence involving peacekeepers and other forms of civil war violence and conflict processes systematically.


  • Lindberg Bromley, S. (2018). Introducing the UCDP Peacemakers at Risk dataset, sub-Saharan Africa 1989-2009. Journal of Peace Research, 55(1), 122–131.
  • Fjelde, Hanne, Lisa Hultman & Sara Lindberg Bromley (2016). Offsetting Losses: Bargaining Power and Rebel Attacks on Peacekeepers. International Studies Quarterly, 60(4): 611-623.
  • Lindberg Bromley, Sara (2017). Keeping Peace while Under Fire: The Causes, Consequences and Characteristics of Violence against Peacekeepers [PhD Dissertation]. Uppsala University.
  • Lindberg Bromley, Sara and Maria Greek (2016). UCDP Peacemakers at Risk (PAR) Codebook and User Guide, available at

Main financial support

  • Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet), Folke Bernadotte Academy

Related Research

Last modified: 2021-01-22